Climate Smart Agriculture Zambia – Impact Evaluation

The evaluation is focused on the implementation and impact of the DFID funded

CSAZ project. The scope is as follows:

  • Geographical: 22 CSAZ implementation districts, covering two of the three Zambian climatic zones;
  • Temporal: starting with a baseline in March 2017 and running until March 2022; and
  • Target Groups: climate smart agriculture farmers who will form the intervention arm of the evaluation and a control group of traditional farmers. The farmers will be split into the three groups of Conservation Farming tillage practice (hoe, animal draft and mechanised CF MT) against like conventional hoe, animal draft and mechanised practices.

The following key evaluation products will be produced:

  • Inception Report (max 30 pages, not including annexes). The Inception Report should include a very clear methodology to show how the evaluation will assess whether the challenges to CA (e.g. weed and pest control, livestock, competition for mulch, crop options for rotation, land rights, fire …) have been addressed and resolved by CSAZ.
  • Evaluation Baseline Report (max 25 pages, not including annexes). The baseline evaluation should include identified constraints of CF in Zambia so that these can be accommodated in a revised ToC, after the first year of the CSAZ.
  • Mid-Point Evaluation Report (max 25 pages, not including annexes);
  • Final Evaluation Report (max 50 pages, not including annexes and an executive summary of max 4 pages); and
  • Manuscript proposal for Peer Review Journal (approximately 15 pages).

interactive webpage on evaluation with appropriate infographics and data visualisations

Satellite Monitoring for Forest Management

The World Bank’s new Satellite Monitoring for Forest Management (SMFM) project will develop satellite Earth Observation methods and global knowledge to address challenges related to monitoring tropical dry forest ecosystems and forest degradation assessment. This assignment provides a technical consultant team to support the World Bank task team in detailed project design, methodological development, verification project results and developing publications. It also supports national teams.

  • The work is in 3 countries, developing a methodology that will have global application to dry tropical woodlands.
  • Led by the World Bank with the European Space Agency as a partner, this is a GEF funded project.
  • LTS is working with the University of Edinburgh to provide technical support to the World Bank to develop the SMFM.
  • The assignment draws on unique and specialised LTS expertise and tools for measuring biomass change in dry tropical woodlands using L-band satellite data.
  • Based in Mozambique, Zambia and a third, to be decided, country outside of Africa.


Recent major breakthroughs in satellite Earth Observation (EO) data provision present an opportunity to address existing limitations in forest monitoring capabilities. They dramatically increase available data, and many existing satellite EO methods and tools are yet to take advantage of this increased data volume. Additionally, most existing EO forest analysis methods were developed for moist tropical forest ecosystems, thus are not applicable to dry forest landscapes, for which new satellite monitoring systems are needed.


The SMFM project will improve global knowledge and capabilities for forest degradation assessment and monitoring dry forest landscapes and support selected countries to develop their EO capacity. The LTS-led technical team is supporting the SMFM on:

  • Project planning and analysis.
  • Designing new and methods and spatial interpretation for monitoring tropical dry forest landscapes and forest degradation assessment using ALOS PALSAR and Sentinel 1&2 data.
  • Support to implementation and validation of satellite EO methods at country-level, improving national capacity.
  • Global knowledge exchange and capacity building.

Value and benefits

The new satellite EO developed for monitoring tropical dry forest landscapes through the SFMF will contribute to improved mapping of deforestation and degradation. Along with the increased national level capacities, this will enable better informed and more effective monitoring and management planning of these dry tropical woodland ecosystems which have enormous livelihood value for some of the world’s poorest people.

The outcomes will have global application in sustainable forest management, including REDD+.

Image credit to NASA

Jane Petty

MBA, Open University, 2014; MSc African Studies (Sustainable Rural Development, Distinction), University of Edinburgh, 1999; BA (Hons) Business with Computing, University of Central Lancashire, 1996

Jane has 20 years of relevant professional experience across the public, private, and NGO sectors. Jane joined LTS in 2016 following nearly four years with DFID as a Humanitarian and Livelihoods Adviser working on climate resilience and humanitarian response in West and Southern Africa and then in water resource management. She held responsibility for delivery of the Sahel humanitarian and social protection programmes and for the Global Water Security Programme, supported operational management of the wider portfolio of programmes across forestry and resilience, and team leadership and management of her East Kilbride based team. At LTS, she has direct responsibility for optimising internal business development systems and processes. At the same time, in order to maximise scope for substantive understanding of the issues on which LTS works, Jane actively engages in external networking and development of new alliances and partnerships.

Jane worked across eight countries in Africa over 15 years and was Fragile States Project Team Leader for Save the Children from 2011-2013, where she spent time supporting country programmes in various Director level roles for the Fragile States project. Jane also worked from 2005-2010 for Tearfund, latterly as Country Director in Southern Sudan, a role involving overall leadership, management, and implementation of disaster management programme interventions and worked in Agricultural Development in Malawi and Zambia between 1997 and 2005.

Background Paper and Analysis of Country Data to Support Development of Comprehensive Landscape Methodological Approach

The BioCarbon Fund Initiative for Sustainable Forest Landscapes (ISFL) seeks to promote reduced greenhouse gas emissions from land-use in four programme countries: Colombia, Ethiopia, Indonesia, and Zambia. This assignment is to produce a background document to support future discussions on the development of a comprehensive landscape methodological approach for accounting greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction to allow a result-based finance mechanism.

  • LTS is leading the project, managing all inputs (deploying a multi-disciplinary team of experts) and taking direct responsible for the data review and collection in two of the programme countries Indonesia and Ethiopia.
  • Our partners Ecofys and Shared Value Africa are responsible for technical work in Colombia and Zambia respectively.
  • The project output will feed into a stakeholder workshop among the ISFL contributors (Germany, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America), planned for December 2016.

Countries are already reporting their GHG emissions using Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methods. However further work is required to account for emission reductions with sufficient confidence to allow for result-based payments in the future. The ISFL seeks to develop a methodological approach that will confidently support results-based payments for comprehensive accounting of emission reductions across the entire AFOLU (Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses) sector.


To address the challenges, LTS’ key activities include:

  • Providing a description of the key concepts in the IPCC guidelines to ensure common understanding among ISFL Contributors;
  • Providing an analysis of available historic relevant data in the relevant ISFL program countries;
  • Identifying key decisions and options going forward;
  • Presenting and explaining the results to the ISFL contributors through a project workshop and final report.

Value and benefits

A thorough and comprehensive methodological approach to report GHG emission reductions, accurately enough to allow result-based financing at a landscape level across the four Programme Countries, will be developed through this project.

Kirsty Wilson

MSc: Environmental Change and Management, University of Oxford (distinction) (2013), BA Social and Political Sciences with a specialism in Social Anthropology, University of Cambridge (2001)

Kirsty Wilson has nearly fifteen years of progressively senior experience in design, delivery and monitoring and evaluation of inclusive rural development programmes. She is an experienced team leader and project director with a keen interest in climate resilience, food security and social protection, and smallholder agriculture.

Kirsty is passionate about ensuring public investment in international development gets to where it is needed in an effective and efficient way. She has held several long-term evaluation Team Leader roles and has provided a range of technical and research inputs on climate and agricultural policy. Prior to joining LTS, she led the Africa Climate Change Resilience Alliance in Ethiopia, worked as a technical advisor to the Ethiopian Ministry of Agriculture and was Head of Policy at Oxfam GB Ethiopia. She worked with researchers and practitioners to design approaches to building adaptive capacity at community level and worked to integrate these into national policy and large-scale Government programmes, including the national social protection programme.

At LTS, she has worked on evaluation and investment planning for the UK Government (Departments for International Development and Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy), Norad, the World Bank as well as impact investors and NGOs. Kirsty remains passionate about finding cost-effective approaches to supporting smallholder farmers to manage risk and grow their livelihoods. In 2011, she was co-editor of a book Small Farmers, Big Change which presented case studies on achieving change at scale through public investment in the smallholder sector. She has continued to work on the design and evaluation of a number of market-based agricultural programmes, with a particular focus on climate smart approaches.

Kirsty has a deep knowledge of donor practices and requirements, a unique range of long-term overseas work experience, qualitative and quantitative research skills, and a demonstrated record of strategic leadership. She has worked in Cameroon, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia as well as on several global and African regional programmes.

Climate Smart Agriculture Programme

CSAP is a 3-year programme for East and Southern Africa. It works with a broad range of organisations to support implementation of the COMESA – EAC – SADC Programme on Climate Change.

CSAP will develop the evidence base (what works, where and for whom) for a range of low cost Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) technologies.

  • CSAP headquarters are in Pretoria, and it covers all COMESA, EAC and SADC countries
  • It is funded by the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID)
  • This contract is led by ASI, in partnership with LTS, PWC, Future Agricultures, and PMTC Zambia

The 3-year programme of scoping, design and initial implementation may be extended on the basis of positive external review.


Evidence is needed on climate smart agricultural technologies that increase yields, increase resilience to drought, reduce erosion, maintain soil fertility and increase carbon sequestration – the five wins. 

There is significant emerging experience in parts of the region. In countries with significant CA pilot experience this needs to be scaled-up; in countries with less experience pilots are needed to set the foundation for scale-up. Together, this would test and improve the evidence available, making it more powerful for driving change.

This assignment is initially to scope and design the CSAP programme to address these issues, with the implementation to follow.


The LTS team provides technical inputs into all phases of the programme starting with scoping and design. In the scoping phase, LTS provided country specific technical expertise on CSA, inputs on the gender aspects of the topic, drafted a broad communications framework, and led the drafting of the scoping report. In the design phase LTS inputs are focused on refining the communications strategy and taking forward the M&E plan, as well as additional technical inputs into the state of CSA. We anticipate full time roles for LTS staff in implementation.

Value and benefits

The resulting design will:

  • Provide an evidence base on the what climate smart agriculture practices work, for whom, where, and under what conditions;
  • Deliver results for farmers on the ground, across the region;
  • Offer a compelling demonstration effect that informs relevant policies and programmes; and
  • Build a network of partners who create a sustainable capacity for adopting and diffusing CSA practices.

Miombo Forests, Livelihoods and Climate Resilient Landscapes: Scoping Study

In many parts of Africa, wood fuels are often the only domestically available and affordable sources of energy and account for over 90% of primary household energy consumption in both rural and urban regions. Wood fuels are also an important source of fuel in the service and industrial sectors, especially in rural areas. As natural sources of supply are depleted, the cost of wood fuel is rising, particularly for the urban poor. Other negative social impacts of wood fuels are also well documented and include exploitation of producers and traders by middlemen and elites, health impacts from indoor smoke inhalation and the opportunity costs associated with fuel wood collection, especially for women and children.

DFID intends to develop a new regional forestry programme focused on wood fuels, livelihoods and resilient landscapes in the Miombo woodlands of eastern and southern Africa. The overall aim of the programme will be to promote sustainable wood fuel energy systems that improve livelihoods and reduce deforestation rates (and associated carbon emissions). It will take an integrated approach, supporting interventions along the entire wood fuel value chain, and recognising wider land uses and ecosystem services within these woodlands. Given the complex nature of the sector, it is likely that the programme will require a mix of interventions; grounded by political economy and contextual analyses in each of the focal countries. The overall objectives of this work are to:

  • Establish the evidence base and Theory of Change for a possible DFID intervention, focussed on wood fuels in the Miombo woodlands of Eastern and Southern Africa.
  • Identify and assess potential approaches and delivery options for a DFID intervention.
  • Identify and engage with key stakeholders working on this issue in the region.

Mid-term Review and Planning for the Norwegian-funded Conservation Farming Unit Programme

Norad has provided NOK 302m to support the promotion of conservation agriculture through the Conservation Agriculture Programme (CAP II) in Zambia and Conservation Agriculture Regional Programme (CARP) in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda. These two programmes are managed by the Conservation Farming Unit (CFU) of the Zambian National Farmers Union under a contract with the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

LTS International will design and deliver the mid-term review and provide recommendations to support decision-making with respect to further Norwegian support to the programmes and to conservation agriculture in general. LTS has provided an overall team leader and national consultants in Zambia, Malawi, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.

Evaluation of National Forest Monitoring and Assessment Programme & Country Projects

The importance of forestry related data and information at the national level is increasingly critical to decision making, sustainable forest management; reducing GHG emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD); land use planning policies and national socio-economic development. FAO’s National Forest Monitoring and Assessment (NFMA) Programme was established in 2000 in recognition that developing countries lacked institutionalised systems of national forest inventory and monitoring and currently works in 50 countries.

LTS undertook an evaluation in accordance with OECD criteria and assessed the utility and impact of the programme and, based on lessons learned, identified obstacles and opportunities for the future and made recommendations on how the NFMA Programme should develop for maximising its effects and adapting to new and evolving needs at national and international levels such as IPCC requirements for monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) under REDD regimes. The programme involved country evaluations of Cameroon, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Philippines and Zambia.

Evaluation of the Sustainability Dimension in Addressing Poverty Reduction

Poverty reduction was an overarching goal of the Finnish development cooperation strategy since 1993 through to the current Development Policy of 2007. The purpose of the evaluation was to identify concrete results and achievements in the Finnish development cooperation, with particular reference to the sustainable development approach. LTS undertook a desk study which was followed by field work in the following countries: Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia, Vietnam, Laos, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia.

The study investigated the poverty reduction outcomes that have taken place in relation to the application of the sustainability concept at a macro level in Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) partner countries; assessed the extent to which MFA interventions since 2000 have made a contribution to these changes through co-operation on forestry and biological resources; drew out lessons from past experiences and thinking, in particular looking for best practice, constraints and innovations; and consequently; identified how MFA interventions could achieve greater impact. The evaluation was guided by the OECD/DAC norms and quality standards for development evaluation.