Sector Analysis Studies for the Commercial Agriculture for Smallholders and Agribusiness Programme (CASA)

The primary objective of this value chain study is to enable the UK Department for International Development (DFID) to identify the value chains, sub-national regions and stakeholders to form the basis for the Commercial Agriculture for Smallholders and Agribusiness (CASA) programme country level interventions (Component 1) and to enable DFID to use this information to develop the Terms of Reference for the implementation of this component of the CASA programme.

Development of MEL Approach for the Weather and Climate Information Services for Africa

The DFID-funded Weather and Climate Information Services for Africa (WISER programme) aims to empower local communities and decision-makers through a better understanding of weather and climate. It funds a range of activities, from strengthening climate information partnerships to enhancing national climate services.

LTS is developing a monitoring, evaluation and learning (MEL) approach for WISER.

  • The 4-year £35million WISER programme operates across Africa, with a focus on the Lake Victoria Basin.
  • The programme partners include the UK Met Office and the Africa climate Policy Centre, based in Ethiopia.
  • The Met office is the fund manager, contracting the MEL inputs.
  • LTS is leading the MEL development work, with significant inputs from our LTS-Africa team.


Although there have been many useful initiatives to strengthen weather and climate information and services across Africa in the last decade or so, the availability and uptake of information and services is still relatively low. This represents a threat to social and economic development.

WISER aims to address the very diverse barriers to uptake and use of weather and climate services.

With a range of partners and a broad scope, there is an identified requirement for a MEL framework across the WISER programme that will provide a coherent approach for the Met Office, ACPC, DFID and other programme stakeholders.


LTS is ensuring that the programme has a robust MEL framework that can be effectively implemented. The MEL approach will ensure good evidence for learning can be generated about the programme. LTS is developing the log frame, theory of change and MEL plans/guidance for the WISER programme and regional projects. The work is soundly based on existing and emerging understanding of the monitoring and evaluation of weather climate programmes, DFID best practice and link with the International Climate Fund (ICF) indicators where appropriate.

Value and benefits

WISER aims to coherently focus on service delivery and on making a step change in the quality, reach and application of weather and climate information.

This will better inform regional, national, sectoral and sub-national and community level policy, planning and decision-making in Africa, promoting more sustainable development.


Scott Geller

MSc Resource Management, University of Edinburgh (UK), 2001; BSc Environmental Studies. University of Vermont, Burlington, United States, 1998.

Scott has more than 16 years of experience in consulting on public sector forestry and organisational change from national processes to grassroots level. Scott has a capability to guide strategic planning within dynamic forest sector reform processes in developing countries, predominantly in east Africa. Prior to joining LTS more than 12 years ago, Scott worked for the Global Programme on Forests under UNDP. Since then Scott has completed two long-term assignments with LTS, Uganda (2002-2004, DFID) and Kenya (2007-2009, USAID). In both instances he provided high-level advisory support on the establishment and restructuring of government forestry services. Scott brings a competence in forest sector reform and institutional development with proven success in guiding strategic planning initiatives, organisational improvements, corporate governance, business management, budgeting and finance, human resources, recruitment and performance contracting. Scott is no stranger to LTS having joined in 2001 initially as a forest policy and institutions consultant working on national forestry programmes, and intermittently on business development and marketing. In 2010, he was appointed the LTS Group Business Development Director and in 2012 he was appointed the Managing Director of LTS Africa based in Nairobi. LTS Africa is a wholly owned subsidiary of LTS International operating as a professional services consulting firm to serve east Africa and further afield.

Michael Gachanja

MSc Range Management (Ecology), University of Nairobi, 1996; BSc Range Management (First Class Honours), University of Nairobi, 1990.

For the Last 22 years, Michael has worked for various institutions with duties ranging from advising national government institutions to designing and implementing large-scale national and transboundary natural resource management programmes in East Africa.  Prior to joining LTS in January 2016, Michael was the Executive Director of the East African Wild Life Society (July 2012– December 2015), its Deputy Director between July 2009 and June 2012 and the National Coordinator of the Kenya Forests Working Group (KFWG) – a consortium of individuals, non-governmental organizations, private sector and government agencies involved in forest conservation in Kenya – (1995 – 2009). Michael’s work at KFWG and East Africa Wild Life Society has today shaped the forestry sector in Kenya and influenced natural resource management policy changes at the regional level. At LTS, Michael continues to play a leading role in forest sector governance in East Africa, and Africa at large. 

His contribution to the forestry sector was the basis of his appointment as the Technical Advisor at Kenya’s Prime Minister’s office Mau Interim Coordinating Secretariat (ICS) that was formed in 2009 to oversee the implementation of the 2009 Mau Forest Complex Task Force recommendations. Michael was also a member of this task force between 2008 and 2009. In recognition of his work in NGOs, Michael was nominated by the United States Department of State to the International Visitor Leadership Programme on NGOs in 2006.

Michael has facilitated many policy processes in Kenya leading to enactment of new laws such as the Forests Conservation and Management Act, 2016, Wildlife Conservation and Management Act, 2013, Land Act 2012, the National Land Commission Act 2012 and the Land Registration Act, 2012. Michael has authored many natural resource management policy background reports and papers in East Africa. At the African regional level, Michael has facilitated many Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade (FLEGT) and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) processes.

He has been involved in the development of climate change plans, strategies, policies, papers and reports in East Africa. He has also contributed to implementation of many projects and programmes involved in integration of climate change. As a certified lead auditor for the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), Michael has conducted many forest management and Chain of Custody certification audits for Soil Association in Kenya and South Sudan.

Michael has undertaken over 80 consultancies. 

Independent M&E of the Northern Uganda Transforming the Economy through Climate Smart Agribusiness (NU-TEC)

NU-TEC is a GBP 48 million programme that will provide technical and financial support to agribusinesses operating pro-poor business models in Northern Uganda, with the intention to support small holder farmers in that region. The intended impact of the NU-TEC is the increased income and resilience to climate change of poor smallholders and agricultural labourers in Northern Uganda.

LTS is supporting the programme to establish effective M&E system (theory of change, indicator design and baseline assessments; undertake Annual, Mid-term and Project Completion reviews; maintain oversight and testing of key project assumptions and risks; design and undertake an impact evaluation of the project; and maximise the evidence and learning concerning the successes, unintended consequences and failures of the NU-TEC project. LTS inputs will provide a key mechanism for DFID to monitor project progress in the implementation, the outcome and the impact of the NU-TEC project and will ensure accountability for programme delivery and project funds.

Uganda Green Growth Development Strategy

LTS is providing technical support to the government of Uganda in developing Uganda’s Green Growth Development Strategy (GGDS) on behalf of UNDP. The strategy is intended to address Uganda’s contribution to global climate change and global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by assisting the government, businesses, and others in establishing the key enabling conditions and tools needed to participate in emerging international GHG management frameworks and meet obligations under the Copenhagen Accord, as reaffirmed during the UN climate conference in Cancun in December 2010. The assignment aims to develop a GGDS to 2030 that responds effectively to Uganda’s development priorities and has the following objectives:

  • Guide national policy and planning in an integrated way;
  • Mainstream climate change in key sectors of the economy; and
  • Position Uganda to access international funding to achieve low-carbon development and green growth.

In collaboration with Ecofys and a wide range of stakeholders, led by the National Planning Authority and Climate Change Department, LTS will develop a GGDS through a participatory process. The scope of work includes:

  1. Baseline: Collect and analyse data integrating sector data and expert views coherently to produce consolidated emissions scenarios for Uganda.
  2. Mitigation options: Identify and prioritize mitigation options, and examine barriers to implementation and policies to overcome these.
  3. 3. Adaptation: Identify adaptation options and specify priorities for taking adaptation measures; furthermore, make adaptation co-benefits one of the criteria to be incorporated in the prioritisation approach of mitigation measures.
  4. Financing: Identify financing needs, analyse domestic and international financing sources, and develop a coherent and actionable financing strategy.
  5. Implementation: Design an implementation plan supported by an effective MRV system, ensuring inter-agency coordination and sustainable stakeholder involvement.

The UGGDS will focus on the period to 2030, examining key mitigation sectors identified in the Uganda National Climate Change Policy and in particular those prioritised under the UNDP LECB initiative, namely: agriculture, energy, transport and waste. The UGGDS will prioritise climate change mitigation measures that contribute to low-carbon development, while also offering co-benefits aligned with Uganda’s development vision. LTS will lead on the analysis and development of the MRV component as well as prioritising mitigation measures based on adaptation co-benefits, identifying adaptation options, and including adaptation measures in the action plan.

Mid-term Review and Planning for the Norwegian-funded Conservation Farming Unit Programme

Norad has provided NOK 302m to support the promotion of conservation agriculture through the Conservation Agriculture Programme (CAP II) in Zambia and Conservation Agriculture Regional Programme (CARP) in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda. These two programmes are managed by the Conservation Farming Unit (CFU) of the Zambian National Farmers Union under a contract with the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

LTS International will design and deliver the mid-term review and provide recommendations to support decision-making with respect to further Norwegian support to the programmes and to conservation agriculture in general. LTS has provided an overall team leader and national consultants in Zambia, Malawi, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.

Nile Story

The objectives of the Nile Story are:

  • To develop new ways to describe the results of the Nile programme in qualitative and quantitative terms at the programme and project levels, including the outcomes and impacts of the support.
  • To convey these results in a variety of communications products targeted at different audiences.

The consultancy researches and conveys the results of the Nile programme enabled by the NBTF, coordinates country and partner support, and packages the findings into a suite of communications materials, informally called the ‘Nile Story’. The work covers the years 1999 through June 2014.

The Nile Story captures systematically the breadth and depth of progress made by the Nile Basin countries on the development track in pursuit of their Shared Vision in both qualitative and quantitative terms.

Building transboundary cooperation is a long term process and Nile cooperation is still in early stages. The Nile story should make reference to some of the challenges experienced and those that that lie ahead. The Nile Story aims to be ‘people centered’, with a focus on what has changed among stakeholders, including changes in attitudes, behaviors, and actions on the ground.

LTS developed a suite of communications products to tell the story of the Nile Basin Initiative over its 15 year history. The products reviewed work already undertaken to capture the progress of the Nile countries, conducted new research and analysis of NBI and national level progress resulting from the Nile programme, and established a framework through which the results of the Nile programme can be conveyed.

The Nile Story publications are available here

Tracking Adaptation and Measuring Development

During 2012-2013, the Kenya Climate Change Action Plan (KCCAP) was developed and launched by the Government of Kenya. The action plan is designed around climate change adaptation and mitigation interventions supported by climate finance, an enabling regulatory and policy framework, technology, a monitoring reporting and verification plus system (MRV+) and a knowledge and capacity building strategy. The action plan recommends several actions for implementation which will lead to a low carbon climate resilient green economy. The National Performance Benefit Measurement Framework is Kenya’s MRV+ system. It contains both adaptation (M&E) and mitigation indicators (MRV) and was developed by LTS International. As part of the MRV+ systems design work, LTS applied the Tracking Adaptation and Measuring Development (TAMD) evaluation framework to develop adaptation indicators for national and county level reporting. TAMD takes a dual approach, building a framework that lets countries evaluate how far, and how well, climate risks are managed at international, national and sub-national scales, and use vulnerability and development indicators to assess whether development outcomes bring better local climate resilience, and whether that aggregates at larger scales to produce climate-resilient development. The TAMD methodology describes the development of indicators that reflect vulnerability and institutional (adaptive) capacity, rather than climate impacts or risk. By doing this, actions that focus on the development end of the adaptation continuum are measured, rather than costly technological fixes that may have limited developmental benefits. TAMD is being piloted by IIED in several countries. Kenya is in the unique position of having a set of national adaptation indicators that have been derived through the application of TAMD. LTS has designed the Kenya TAMD pilot and is now advancing TAMD roll-out at national and sub-national levels. We are addressing a significant gap between the current situation of TAMD and a working adaptation M&E framework. LTS’s cutting-edge work on TAMD across Africa includes:

  • Formulating a design and appraisal report with agreed on the next steps in the TAMD initiative in Kenya and the options for implementation.
  • Engaging with Kenya’s policy partners – Ministry of Planning and Devolution and the National Drought Management Authority – to mainstream the TAMD approach within macro-sectoral planning.
  • Guiding TAMD pilot operations in Kenya across 5 counties (Isiolo, Wajir, Garissa, Kitui and Makueni) to support adequate institutionalisation of TAMD in County planning departments and Ward committees.
  • Working with community, sub-national and national stakeholders in the development of adaptation M&E frameworks at all levels which consists of developing theories of change for adaptation, indicators, assumptions, collecting and analysing baseline information and developing M&E plans.
  • Assisting in the establishment of the county-national level linkages of institutional adaptive capacity and development indicators and data information flow processes.
  • Advising the Adaptation Consortium under the DFID  Strengthening Adaptation and Resilience to Climate Change in Kenya Plus (StARK+) on mainstreaming TAMD as a tool within their M&E system.
  • Producing quarterly reports against an agreed set of technical contents and on expenditure and activities; reports of events and liaison with Country and National agencies; a bespoke evaluation framework, blogs and press releases.

In Mozambique, Ethiopia and Tanzania, LTS is offering technical support to the TAMD teams in each country. This involves training the teams on developing adaptation M&E frameworks using TAMD and their integration into planning documents, reviewing reports and assisting in fieldwork when necessary. The first publication from this work, a briefing note on “Institutionalising adaptation monitoring and evaluation frameworks: Kenya”, can now be downloaded here. Our TAMD work has been acknowledged in Uganda where we contributed to a working paper on identifying national standard climate change indicators with a bottom up approach. The working paper is available here Our work has also been presented at COP 21 in Paris. A summary video (6 minutes) and more detailed video (19 minutes) can be played below:


Mount Elgon Regional Ecosystem Conservation Programme

The Mt Elgon Regional Ecosystem Conservation Programme (MERECP) was jointly funded by the Governments of Norway and Sweden. MERECP supported a trans-boundary ecosystem initiative under the auspices of the East African Community (EAC). MERECP started in 2006 with a total funding of NOK 34.2 million (approximately USD 6 million), initially for a period of 4 years.

LTS evaluated the overall achievements of the MERECP programme with an emphasis on the achievements in the redesign phase. The team assessed the regional relevance of the MERECP towards the agreed areas of co-operation in the Protocol for the Sustainable Development of the Lake Victoria Basin; evaluating the outcome, impact, sustainability and indicative cost-effectiveness (by relating the activities and costs compared to the outputs obtained) of the programme; and assessing the institutional arrangements for the management, implementation and the M&E functions of the programme.

LTS reviewed the strengths and weaknesses and found lessons to be learned from the organisation and management of MERECP; compared the current institutional arrangement vis-a-vis the previous; and assessed the Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) and reporting systems of the MERECP, including whether targets, indicators and monitoring were necessary to judge performance.

The LTS evaluation provided factual (quantitative and qualitative) information on the efficiency (the relationship of input to output) and effectiveness (the relationship of output to outcome/impact) of the Programme; assessing partners’ planning processes; assessing the sustainability of the achievements of the program; and assessing partners’ risk management during planning and implementation. LTS assessed communication and co-ordination processes between implementing partners; assessed financial planning and reporting as well as follow-up, including anti-corruption mitigation measures; the relevance of the projects in relation to Kenyan and Ugandan policies and strategies, including ongoing processes of developing national REDD+ plans and strategies; and the level of funds that had reached the target groups/target institutions compared to the direct and indirect administrative costs of the LVBC. LTS also assessed how gender was dealt with in the programme, including how the LVBC gender policy was reflected in the implementation of the MERECP and the arrangement for joint financing (Norwegian Embassy in Kampala as the lead, Sida (Kampala, later Nairobi) as the silent partner). LTS provided recommendations regarding the design of a possible second phase of MERECP based on the lessons learned during the first phase.

Update 18 January 2012: the MERECP End-Review Report has now been published and is available to view online here