Gender Economic Empowerment Analysis

LTSA is conducting research of 5 projects selected from Vuna’s innovation models portfolio in order to generate findings to enhance Vuna’s evidence base about the impact of CSA delivery mechanisms on women’s economic empowerment and reduced gender productivity gaps. We are using the GALS framework which is a household methodology embedded on behavior change at household level.

The research is action based where LTS will continue with the data gathering, action planning and ongoing monitoring in the implementation of the Theory-Based Approach, Gender Action Learning System and the Research Reporting.

Sector Analysis Studies for the Commercial Agriculture for Smallholders and Agribusiness Programme (CASA)

The primary objective of this value chain study is to enable the UK Department for International Development (DFID) to identify the value chains, sub-national regions and stakeholders to form the basis for the Commercial Agriculture for Smallholders and Agribusiness (CASA) programme country level interventions (Component 1) and to enable DFID to use this information to develop the Terms of Reference for the implementation of this component of the CASA programme.

Development of MEL Approach for the Weather and Climate Information Services for Africa

The DFID-funded Weather and Climate Information Services for Africa (WISER programme) aimed to empower local communities and decision-makers through a better understanding of weather and climate. It funds a range of activities, from strengthening climate information partnerships to enhancing national climate services.

LTS developed a monitoring, evaluation and learning (MEL) approach for WISER.

  • The 4-year £35million WISER programme operates across Africa, with a focus on the Lake Victoria Basin.
  • The programme partners include the UK Met Office and the Africa climate Policy Centre, based in Ethiopia.
  • The Met office is the fund manager, contracting the MEL inputs.
  • LTS is leading the MEL development work, with significant inputs from our LTS-Africa team.


Although there have been many useful initiatives to strengthen weather and climate information and services across Africa in the last decade or so, the availability and uptake of information and services is still relatively low. This represents a threat to social and economic development.

WISER aims to address the very diverse barriers to uptake and use of weather and climate services.

With a range of partners and a broad scope, there is an identified requirement for a MEL framework across the WISER programme that will provide a coherent approach for the Met Office, ACPC, DFID and other programme stakeholders.


LTS is ensuring that the programme has a robust MEL framework that can be effectively implemented. The MEL approach will ensure good evidence for learning can be generated about the programme. LTS is developing the log frame, theory of change and MEL plans/guidance for the WISER programme and regional projects. The work is soundly based on existing and emerging understanding of the monitoring and evaluation of weather climate programmes, DFID best practice and link with the International Climate Fund (ICF) indicators where appropriate.

Value and benefits

WISER aims to coherently focus on service delivery and on making a step change in the quality, reach and application of weather and climate information.

This will better inform regional, national, sectoral and sub-national and community level policy, planning and decision-making in Africa, promoting more sustainable development.


Scaling out Devolved Climate Finance in Tanzania

The project aims to strengthen the resilience of over 1 million people in Tanzania and Zanzibar to increasing climate variability and change, by establishing local level climate adaptation funds in 15 districts in Tanzania and 13 in Zanzibar. LTS is a consortium partner, leading the Monitoring, Evaluation & Learning (MEL) component to provide evidence and learning on the effectiveness of devolved climate finance investments.

  • The project is being led by IIED, in collaboration with the Government of Tanzania and funded by DFID. The five-year project runs from 2016 – 2021.
  • LTS Africa is responsible for the MEL component of the project, valued at GBP 147,900.
  • LTS will work closely with consortium partners to provide MEL support and build the capacity of stakeholders including the government of Tanzania personnel.

As part of capacity building, LTS will apply the Tracking Adaptation and Measuring Development (TAMD) evaluation framework to develop adaptation indicators for national and county level reporting.


The project responds to requests by district and national level institutions for technical assistance in strengthening their institutional capacity for climate resilience and low carbon growth. They recognise that they require support so that devolved climate finance mechanisms can be mainstreamed at district level.

Currently, there are very few models for the decentralisation of climate finance. This project needs to provide practical experience and a tested model for effective and robust disbursement of funds to promote adaptation to climate change that can be replicated throughout Tanzania and Zanzibar.


LTS’s MEL role is to:

  • Collaboratively develop a comprehensive MEL strategy which will justify and explain tracking of project outcomes, detail a capacity building plan on MEL, and ensure capture of evidence of innovative community solutions to climate change.
  • Build capacity – including both classroom training and “on-the-job” mentoring, covering the TAMD framework that will assist them in developing decentralised adaptation MEL frameworks and systems.

Mentor – provide ongoing technical advice, support and training where necessary on climate resilience measurements and MEL requirements, including on TAMD approaches.

Value and benefits

The project will strengthen institutional arrangements to mobilise and deliver finance for investment in local adaptation prioritised by vulnerable communities at sub-district level. It will enhance coordination and integration into national climate change and M&E frameworks for effective climate change planning and budgeting.  It will enable the Governments of Tanzania and Zanzibar to effectively draw down, disburse and monitor the effectiveness of finance from national and international sources to support the building of resilient, economically productive livelihoods, and a climate resilient economy.

Photo credits to Richard Davis

Scott Geller

MSc Resource Management, University of Edinburgh (UK), 2001; BSc Environmental Studies. University of Vermont, Burlington, United States, 1998.

Scott has more than 16 years of experience in consulting on public sector forestry and organisational change from national processes to grassroots level. Scott has a capability to guide strategic planning within dynamic forest sector reform processes in developing countries, predominantly in east Africa. Prior to joining LTS more than 12 years ago, Scott worked for the Global Programme on Forests under UNDP. Since then Scott has completed two long-term assignments with LTS, Uganda (2002-2004, DFID) and Kenya (2007-2009, USAID). In both instances he provided high-level advisory support on the establishment and restructuring of government forestry services. Scott brings a competence in forest sector reform and institutional development with proven success in guiding strategic planning initiatives, organisational improvements, corporate governance, business management, budgeting and finance, human resources, recruitment and performance contracting. Scott is no stranger to LTS having joined in 2001 initially as a forest policy and institutions consultant working on national forestry programmes, and intermittently on business development and marketing. In 2010, he was appointed the LTS Group Business Development Director and in 2012 he was appointed the Managing Director of LTS Africa based in Nairobi. LTS Africa is a wholly owned subsidiary of LTS International operating as a professional services consulting firm to serve east Africa and further afield.

Irene Karani

Having worked on all major Government of Kenya adaptation planning and investment efforts, Irene is Kenya’s leading adaptation expert. Irene has over 20 years in climate change related issues, disaster risk management, natural resource management and rural livelihoods with communities in Africa. She is conversant with the socio-environmental issues in a range of ecosystems and land uses. Irene has undertaken more than 100 consulting assignments covering over 10 countries in the region and is highly experienced in the design, management and implementation and evaluation of projects/programmes related to natural resource management (environmental management, climate change adaptation, conservation and carbon sequestration,), food security, water and sanitation, nutrition and health, pastoralism, conflict management, gender mainstreaming, capacity building, humanitarian interventions in water and animal health, drought cycle management, and eco-tourism and poverty alleviation. Irene has very strong monitoring and evaluation skills having worked to design project and programme M&E systems at the organisational and community levels and is conversant with the sustainable livelihoods framework and key issues of poverty alleviation with regard to pastoralist livelihoods. Other qualities include strong project management skills, capacity assessments, training and strategic planning processes having conducted these at community, national and regional levels. Irene’s greatest achievements in climate change include: management of the Kenya Adaptation Technical Analysis under the Kenya National Climate Change Action Planning process by working with government, private sector and civil society actors; development and finalisation of Kenya’s first National Adaptation Plan; leading the successful completion of Kenya’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) through collaboration with government, private sector and civil society; implementation of the Tracking Adaptation and Measuring Development (TAMD) framework in Kenya, Mozambique, Uganda, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Zanzibar and Sudan; providing technical expertise on adaptation to Uganda’s Green Growth Strategy amongst others. She is also the Senior Advisor on Livelihoods and Climate Change in the USAID Planning for Resilience in East Africa through Policy, Adaptation and Economic Development Project (PREPARED). Irene has experience in Burundi, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Somalia (incl. Puntland, Somaliland and Central Somalia), Sudan (Khartoum), Southern Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and Zanzibar.

Climate Smart Agriculture Programme

CSAP is a 3-year programme for East and Southern Africa. It works with a broad range of organisations to support implementation of the COMESA – EAC – SADC Programme on Climate Change.

CSAP will develop the evidence base (what works, where and for whom) for a range of low cost Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) technologies.

  • CSAP headquarters are in Pretoria, and it covers all COMESA, EAC and SADC countries
  • It is funded by the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID)
  • This contract is led by ASI, in partnership with LTS, PWC, Future Agricultures, and PMTC Zambia

The 3-year programme of scoping, design and initial implementation may be extended on the basis of positive external review.


Evidence is needed on climate smart agricultural technologies that increase yields, increase resilience to drought, reduce erosion, maintain soil fertility and increase carbon sequestration – the five wins. 

There is significant emerging experience in parts of the region. In countries with significant CA pilot experience this needs to be scaled-up; in countries with less experience pilots are needed to set the foundation for scale-up. Together, this would test and improve the evidence available, making it more powerful for driving change.

This assignment is initially to scope and design the CSAP programme to address these issues, with the implementation to follow.


The LTS team provides technical inputs into all phases of the programme starting with scoping and design. In the scoping phase, LTS provided country specific technical expertise on CSA, inputs on the gender aspects of the topic, drafted a broad communications framework, and led the drafting of the scoping report. In the design phase LTS inputs are focused on refining the communications strategy and taking forward the M&E plan, as well as additional technical inputs into the state of CSA. We anticipate full time roles for LTS staff in implementation.

Value and benefits

The resulting design will:

  • Provide an evidence base on the what climate smart agriculture practices work, for whom, where, and under what conditions;
  • Deliver results for farmers on the ground, across the region;
  • Offer a compelling demonstration effect that informs relevant policies and programmes; and
  • Build a network of partners who create a sustainable capacity for adopting and diffusing CSA practices.

Miombo Forests, Livelihoods and Climate Resilient Landscapes: Scoping Study

In many parts of Africa, wood fuels are often the only domestically available and affordable sources of energy and account for over 90% of primary household energy consumption in both rural and urban regions. Wood fuels are also an important source of fuel in the service and industrial sectors, especially in rural areas. As natural sources of supply are depleted, the cost of wood fuel is rising, particularly for the urban poor. Other negative social impacts of wood fuels are also well documented and include exploitation of producers and traders by middlemen and elites, health impacts from indoor smoke inhalation and the opportunity costs associated with fuel wood collection, especially for women and children.

DFID intends to develop a new regional forestry programme focused on wood fuels, livelihoods and resilient landscapes in the Miombo woodlands of eastern and southern Africa. The overall aim of the programme will be to promote sustainable wood fuel energy systems that improve livelihoods and reduce deforestation rates (and associated carbon emissions). It will take an integrated approach, supporting interventions along the entire wood fuel value chain, and recognising wider land uses and ecosystem services within these woodlands. Given the complex nature of the sector, it is likely that the programme will require a mix of interventions; grounded by political economy and contextual analyses in each of the focal countries. The overall objectives of this work are to:

  • Establish the evidence base and Theory of Change for a possible DFID intervention, focussed on wood fuels in the Miombo woodlands of Eastern and Southern Africa.
  • Identify and assess potential approaches and delivery options for a DFID intervention.
  • Identify and engage with key stakeholders working on this issue in the region.

Mid-term Review and Planning for the Norwegian-funded Conservation Farming Unit Programme

Norad has provided NOK 302m to support the promotion of conservation agriculture through the Conservation Agriculture Programme (CAP II) in Zambia and Conservation Agriculture Regional Programme (CARP) in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda. These two programmes are managed by the Conservation Farming Unit (CFU) of the Zambian National Farmers Union under a contract with the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

LTS International will design and deliver the mid-term review and provide recommendations to support decision-making with respect to further Norwegian support to the programmes and to conservation agriculture in general. LTS has provided an overall team leader and national consultants in Zambia, Malawi, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.

Nile Story

The objectives of the Nile Story are:

  • To develop new ways to describe the results of the Nile programme in qualitative and quantitative terms at the programme and project levels, including the outcomes and impacts of the support.
  • To convey these results in a variety of communications products targeted at different audiences.

The consultancy researches and conveys the results of the Nile programme enabled by the NBTF, coordinates country and partner support, and packages the findings into a suite of communications materials, informally called the ‘Nile Story’. The work covers the years 1999 through June 2014.

The Nile Story captures systematically the breadth and depth of progress made by the Nile Basin countries on the development track in pursuit of their Shared Vision in both qualitative and quantitative terms.

Building transboundary cooperation is a long term process and Nile cooperation is still in early stages. The Nile story should make reference to some of the challenges experienced and those that that lie ahead. The Nile Story aims to be ‘people centered’, with a focus on what has changed among stakeholders, including changes in attitudes, behaviors, and actions on the ground.

LTS developed a suite of communications products to tell the story of the Nile Basin Initiative over its 15 year history. The products reviewed work already undertaken to capture the progress of the Nile countries, conducted new research and analysis of NBI and national level progress resulting from the Nile programme, and established a framework through which the results of the Nile programme can be conveyed.

The Nile Story publications are available here