Sector Analysis Studies for the Commercial Agriculture for Smallholders and Agribusiness Programme (CASA)

The primary objective of this value chain study is to enable the UK Department for International Development (DFID) to identify the value chains, sub-national regions and stakeholders to form the basis for the Commercial Agriculture for Smallholders and Agribusiness (CASA) programme country level interventions (Component 1) and to enable DFID to use this information to develop the Terms of Reference for the implementation of this component of the CASA programme.

Satellite Monitoring for Forest Management

The World Bank’s new Satellite Monitoring for Forest Management (SMFM) project will develop satellite Earth Observation methods and global knowledge to address challenges related to monitoring tropical dry forest ecosystems and forest degradation assessment. This assignment provides a technical consultant team to support the World Bank task team in detailed project design, methodological development, verification project results and developing publications. It also supports national teams.

  • The work is in 3 countries, developing a methodology that will have global application to dry tropical woodlands.
  • Led by the World Bank with the European Space Agency as a partner, this is a GEF funded project.
  • LTS is working with the University of Edinburgh to provide technical support to the World Bank to develop the SMFM.
  • The assignment draws on unique and specialised LTS expertise and tools for measuring biomass change in dry tropical woodlands using L-band satellite data.
  • Based in Mozambique, Zambia and a third, to be decided, country outside of Africa.


Recent major breakthroughs in satellite Earth Observation (EO) data provision present an opportunity to address existing limitations in forest monitoring capabilities. They dramatically increase available data, and many existing satellite EO methods and tools are yet to take advantage of this increased data volume. Additionally, most existing EO forest analysis methods were developed for moist tropical forest ecosystems, thus are not applicable to dry forest landscapes, for which new satellite monitoring systems are needed.


The SMFM project will improve global knowledge and capabilities for forest degradation assessment and monitoring dry forest landscapes and support selected countries to develop their EO capacity. The LTS-led technical team is supporting the SMFM on:

  • Project planning and analysis.
  • Designing new and methods and spatial interpretation for monitoring tropical dry forest landscapes and forest degradation assessment using ALOS PALSAR and Sentinel 1&2 data.
  • Support to implementation and validation of satellite EO methods at country-level, improving national capacity.
  • Global knowledge exchange and capacity building.

Value and benefits

The new satellite EO developed for monitoring tropical dry forest landscapes through the SFMF will contribute to improved mapping of deforestation and degradation. Along with the increased national level capacities, this will enable better informed and more effective monitoring and management planning of these dry tropical woodland ecosystems which have enormous livelihood value for some of the world’s poorest people.

The outcomes will have global application in sustainable forest management, including REDD+.

Image credit to NASA

Patrick Abbot

MSc Human Resources Management and Development, IDPM, University of Manchester, (UK) 2006;

PhD, University of Aberdeen (UK) 1997;

MSc Forest Business Management, University of Aberdeen (UK) 1991;

BSc (Joint Hons) Biological Sciences and Geography, University of Birmingham (UK) 1988.

A Director since 2007, Paddy became Managing Director of LTS in January 2009. He started his career by setting up an environmental NGO with friends back in 1987, which brought the concept of people and forests to schools and homes in the UK through educational programmes, film and popular publicity. In the subsequent years, he built-up field experience in the areas of ecology, socio-economics, and organisational development and supported institutional strengthening at local and national levels. Paddy remains passionate about development and the environment and he now combines a company management role with consultancy work. This consultancy focuses on supporting monitoring and evaluation processes for a range of clients and delivering institutional assessments and policy analyses, particularly in the context of environmental change. Co-author of a review for DFID of development policy and the Clean Development Mechanism to enhance financing of development in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Climate Smart Agriculture Programme

CSAP is a 3-year programme for East and Southern Africa. It works with a broad range of organisations to support implementation of the COMESA – EAC – SADC Programme on Climate Change.

CSAP will develop the evidence base (what works, where and for whom) for a range of low cost Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) technologies.

  • CSAP headquarters are in Pretoria, and it covers all COMESA, EAC and SADC countries
  • It is funded by the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID)
  • This contract is led by ASI, in partnership with LTS, PWC, Future Agricultures, and PMTC Zambia

The 3-year programme of scoping, design and initial implementation may be extended on the basis of positive external review.


Evidence is needed on climate smart agricultural technologies that increase yields, increase resilience to drought, reduce erosion, maintain soil fertility and increase carbon sequestration – the five wins. 

There is significant emerging experience in parts of the region. In countries with significant CA pilot experience this needs to be scaled-up; in countries with less experience pilots are needed to set the foundation for scale-up. Together, this would test and improve the evidence available, making it more powerful for driving change.

This assignment is initially to scope and design the CSAP programme to address these issues, with the implementation to follow.


The LTS team provides technical inputs into all phases of the programme starting with scoping and design. In the scoping phase, LTS provided country specific technical expertise on CSA, inputs on the gender aspects of the topic, drafted a broad communications framework, and led the drafting of the scoping report. In the design phase LTS inputs are focused on refining the communications strategy and taking forward the M&E plan, as well as additional technical inputs into the state of CSA. We anticipate full time roles for LTS staff in implementation.

Value and benefits

The resulting design will:

  • Provide an evidence base on the what climate smart agriculture practices work, for whom, where, and under what conditions;
  • Deliver results for farmers on the ground, across the region;
  • Offer a compelling demonstration effect that informs relevant policies and programmes; and
  • Build a network of partners who create a sustainable capacity for adopting and diffusing CSA practices.

Miombo Forests, Livelihoods and Climate Resilient Landscapes: Scoping Study

In many parts of Africa, wood fuels are often the only domestically available and affordable sources of energy and account for over 90% of primary household energy consumption in both rural and urban regions. Wood fuels are also an important source of fuel in the service and industrial sectors, especially in rural areas. As natural sources of supply are depleted, the cost of wood fuel is rising, particularly for the urban poor. Other negative social impacts of wood fuels are also well documented and include exploitation of producers and traders by middlemen and elites, health impacts from indoor smoke inhalation and the opportunity costs associated with fuel wood collection, especially for women and children.

DFID intends to develop a new regional forestry programme focused on wood fuels, livelihoods and resilient landscapes in the Miombo woodlands of eastern and southern Africa. The overall aim of the programme will be to promote sustainable wood fuel energy systems that improve livelihoods and reduce deforestation rates (and associated carbon emissions). It will take an integrated approach, supporting interventions along the entire wood fuel value chain, and recognising wider land uses and ecosystem services within these woodlands. Given the complex nature of the sector, it is likely that the programme will require a mix of interventions; grounded by political economy and contextual analyses in each of the focal countries. The overall objectives of this work are to:

  • Establish the evidence base and Theory of Change for a possible DFID intervention, focussed on wood fuels in the Miombo woodlands of Eastern and Southern Africa.
  • Identify and assess potential approaches and delivery options for a DFID intervention.
  • Identify and engage with key stakeholders working on this issue in the region.

SADC Regional Vulnerability Assessment and Analysis Programme

SADC’s RVAA programme aims to support ‘Policy responses to vulnerability constantly informed and influenced by improved assessment of climate vulnerability (who, where, why) across the region’.

The objective of our contract is to assist SADC RVAA Programme Management Unit (PMU) in Gabarone, Botswana to manage and implement DFID’s support to SADC RVAA Strategy.

  • This is a component of the wider Climate Smart Programme ‘Scaling-up Climate Smart Agriculture in Eastern and Southern Africa’ aims to improved knowledge, policies and longer-term incentives drive increased uptake of Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) in COMESA- EAC-SADC member states.
  • The SADC Programme Management Unit (PMU) is responsible for coordinating and facilitation of the SADC RVAA programme. It is supported by a Technical Assistance Team provided by Cardno and LTS International.
  • LTS has provided two long-term experts and a range of short-term inputs, delivering the M&E for the RVAA programme and specialist inputs on climate change adaptation, capacity assessment, strategic planning and outcomes assessments.

Cardno and LTS have worked with a range of partners, including the Food Economy Group and the Institute of Development Studies.


SADC developed a regional Vulnerability and Assessment and Analysis (VAA) Strategy, which forms the basis for this Programme component. The component has 3 main outputs:

  • National Vulnerability Assessment and Analysis procedures operational.
  • National Vulnerability Assessment and Analysis outputs reflected in policy and programme.
  • Regional Vulnerability Assessment and Analysis output accessible and communicated.

The SADC Secretariat has requested support to achieve this, through technical experts within the RVAA PMU.


The technical and project management services include:

  • capacity building, institutional development and reinforcement of national VACs.
  • harmonisation of vulnerability analysis across the region.
  • support to the development and implementation of communication and advocacy strategies.
  • support to increase the uptake of vulnerability analysis by policymakers, particularly in relation to humanitarian response, nutrition and food security, social protection, urban planning and climate change adaptation.
  • evaluating the impacts of vulnerability analysis on policy.

Value and benefits

DFID’s support to SADC RVAA Strategy will enhance regional and national response to climate change, poverty and livelihood vulnerability.

Tracking Adaptation and Measuring Development

During 2012-2013, the Kenya Climate Change Action Plan (KCCAP) was developed and launched by the Government of Kenya. The action plan is designed around climate change adaptation and mitigation interventions supported by climate finance, an enabling regulatory and policy framework, technology, a monitoring reporting and verification plus system (MRV+) and a knowledge and capacity building strategy. The action plan recommends several actions for implementation which will lead to a low carbon climate resilient green economy. The National Performance Benefit Measurement Framework is Kenya’s MRV+ system. It contains both adaptation (M&E) and mitigation indicators (MRV) and was developed by LTS International. As part of the MRV+ systems design work, LTS applied the Tracking Adaptation and Measuring Development (TAMD) evaluation framework to develop adaptation indicators for national and county level reporting. TAMD takes a dual approach, building a framework that lets countries evaluate how far, and how well, climate risks are managed at international, national and sub-national scales, and use vulnerability and development indicators to assess whether development outcomes bring better local climate resilience, and whether that aggregates at larger scales to produce climate-resilient development. The TAMD methodology describes the development of indicators that reflect vulnerability and institutional (adaptive) capacity, rather than climate impacts or risk. By doing this, actions that focus on the development end of the adaptation continuum are measured, rather than costly technological fixes that may have limited developmental benefits. TAMD is being piloted by IIED in several countries. Kenya is in the unique position of having a set of national adaptation indicators that have been derived through the application of TAMD. LTS has designed the Kenya TAMD pilot and is now advancing TAMD roll-out at national and sub-national levels. We are addressing a significant gap between the current situation of TAMD and a working adaptation M&E framework. LTS’s cutting-edge work on TAMD across Africa includes:

  • Formulating a design and appraisal report with agreed on the next steps in the TAMD initiative in Kenya and the options for implementation.
  • Engaging with Kenya’s policy partners – Ministry of Planning and Devolution and the National Drought Management Authority – to mainstream the TAMD approach within macro-sectoral planning.
  • Guiding TAMD pilot operations in Kenya across 5 counties (Isiolo, Wajir, Garissa, Kitui and Makueni) to support adequate institutionalisation of TAMD in County planning departments and Ward committees.
  • Working with community, sub-national and national stakeholders in the development of adaptation M&E frameworks at all levels which consists of developing theories of change for adaptation, indicators, assumptions, collecting and analysing baseline information and developing M&E plans.
  • Assisting in the establishment of the county-national level linkages of institutional adaptive capacity and development indicators and data information flow processes.
  • Advising the Adaptation Consortium under the DFID  Strengthening Adaptation and Resilience to Climate Change in Kenya Plus (StARK+) on mainstreaming TAMD as a tool within their M&E system.
  • Producing quarterly reports against an agreed set of technical contents and on expenditure and activities; reports of events and liaison with Country and National agencies; a bespoke evaluation framework, blogs and press releases.

In Mozambique, Ethiopia and Tanzania, LTS is offering technical support to the TAMD teams in each country. This involves training the teams on developing adaptation M&E frameworks using TAMD and their integration into planning documents, reviewing reports and assisting in fieldwork when necessary. The first publication from this work, a briefing note on “Institutionalising adaptation monitoring and evaluation frameworks: Kenya”, can now be downloaded here. Our TAMD work has been acknowledged in Uganda where we contributed to a working paper on identifying national standard climate change indicators with a bottom up approach. The working paper is available here Our work has also been presented at COP 21 in Paris. A summary video (6 minutes) and more detailed video (19 minutes) can be played below:


Evaluation of the Sustainability Dimension in Addressing Poverty Reduction

Poverty reduction was an overarching goal of the Finnish development cooperation strategy since 1993 through to the current Development Policy of 2007. The purpose of the evaluation was to identify concrete results and achievements in the Finnish development cooperation, with particular reference to the sustainable development approach. LTS undertook a desk study which was followed by field work in the following countries: Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia, Vietnam, Laos, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia.

The study investigated the poverty reduction outcomes that have taken place in relation to the application of the sustainability concept at a macro level in Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) partner countries; assessed the extent to which MFA interventions since 2000 have made a contribution to these changes through co-operation on forestry and biological resources; drew out lessons from past experiences and thinking, in particular looking for best practice, constraints and innovations; and consequently; identified how MFA interventions could achieve greater impact. The evaluation was guided by the OECD/DAC norms and quality standards for development evaluation.

Policy Options for Strengthening the Management of Miombo Woodlands to Meet Household Needs in Southern Africa

The project contributed to the World bank project, Policies and incentives for improving the management of miombo woodlands to meet household needs in Southern Africa. The project outputs were for World Bank ARD and ENV staff working on the design and development of forestry interventions which incorporate elements of dry woodland management, as well as PREM staff who are engaged in the development of social, economic and policy instruments focused on poverty reduction, both through PRSPs and CASs and through Development Policy Lending instruments. This project provided a framework for an improved understanding of the linkage between rural livelihoods and miombo woodlands and was intended to inform the development of social and economic policies which have poverty alleviation as their primary objective. The overall project focused specifically on three themes: social and economic characteristics of miombo use and the role of miombo in income and consumption amongst poor rural households; how miombo woodlands can be better managed in a way which is consistent with meeting rural subsistence demands for tree products; and on social and economic policies which can strengthen their contribution to reducing risk and vulnerability of poor rural households through sustainable forest management. LTS provided an experienced staff member to author the paper on Policy options for strengthening dry woodland management in a way which contributes to their role in reducing risk and vulnerability and which enhances their contribution to household welfare. LTS undertook the background research and prepared a draft paper which was presented at a CIFOR meeting in November 2007, before completion of the draft in December 2007. The paper reviewed policy measures for improving the access, use and management of miombo woodland products by poor people. The paper developed themes which are emerging in the literature about the relationship between woodland management and the poor, including those related to common property resource use.

Regional Climate Change Programme

Southern Africa is particularly vulnerable to climate related challenges. As part of an ongoing effort to help minimize the risks associated with climate change, DFID has been supporting adaptation efforts in the region. In 2007/08 LTS, together with our regional partner OneWorld, conducted a 5-country feasibility study to clarify the role DFID should play to help southern Africa respond to the challenge of climate change. LTS identified key risks and vulnerabilities in the region, reviewed the anticipated impacts climate change and determined at what resolution biophysical information is needed to inform a) a robust regional programme and b) allow for effective monitoring of climate change progress and effectiveness of responses. It also concluded that a Regional Climate Change programme (RCCP) for Southern Africa (SADC region) could enhance adaptation to climate change, thus contributing towards poverty reduction. Subsequently, DFID approved funding a RCCP designed “to enable transboundary adaptation to climate change, with equitable access to climate funding, in southern Africa”. This programme, with funds managed by OneWorld and technical assistance supported by LTS and a number of South African Partners, was designed to promote capacity building and advisory support to the SADC region, as well as promoting stakeholder engagement, public awareness and lesson learning.