The Drought Chapter of GAR13

In coordination with UNISDR’s Risk Knowledge Section, LTS worked with Save the Children to generate innovative drought risk analysis by developing key recommendations to be presented in GAR13 by collating and analysing at least 9 recent peer reviewed or grey literature, highlighting the latest findings to fit the GAR report analysis 2 days prior to the meeting and 3 days after the meeting; contributing to the development of the zero order of the drought chapter of GAR13; and analysing the comments received after first peer review. The preliminary findings of this analysis were presented as part of the thematic focus of the 2013 Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction. Vulnerability of rural livelihoods to natural hazards and increased exposure of agricultural production and supply chains have to be viewed against the backdrop of recent trends in the global economy, including the liberalisation of trade, high price volatility of food in global markets and the securitisation of commodities, including agricultural products.

Lesson Learning of the Kenya Climate Change Action Plan

Through Achieving Triple Wins: Identifying Climate Smart Investment Strategies for the Coastal Zone, funded by Climate Development Knowledge Network (CDKN), LTS was part of an international team of researchers working in Belize, Ghana, Kenya and Vietnam, that were seeking to present the potential co-benefits (and possible damages) from actions that deliver adaptation and mitigation through detailed case studies, supported by a set of policy briefs for national coastal managers, in order to establish an outline proposal for funds to develop an investment planning toolkit. Our focus was on tropical coastal areas in developing countries, particularly those at risk from sea level rise and changes in tropical cyclone intensity.  LTS was leading the Kenyan case study for this research, focusing on extractive forestry as a sector with potential to support both adaptation and mitigation of climate change. Our partners in this project were Southampton University, WWF Caribbean, University of Ghana and the Government of Vietnam.

Development of MEL Approach for the Weather and Climate Information Services for Africa

The DFID-funded Weather and Climate Information Services for Africa (WISER programme) aimed to empower local communities and decision-makers through a better understanding of weather and climate. It funds a range of activities, from strengthening climate information partnerships to enhancing national climate services.

LTS developed a monitoring, evaluation and learning (MEL) approach for WISER.

  • The 4-year £35million WISER programme operates across Africa, with a focus on the Lake Victoria Basin.
  • The programme partners include the UK Met Office and the Africa climate Policy Centre, based in Ethiopia.
  • The Met office is the fund manager, contracting the MEL inputs.
  • LTS is leading the MEL development work, with significant inputs from our LTS-Africa team.


Although there have been many useful initiatives to strengthen weather and climate information and services across Africa in the last decade or so, the availability and uptake of information and services is still relatively low. This represents a threat to social and economic development.

WISER aims to address the very diverse barriers to uptake and use of weather and climate services.

With a range of partners and a broad scope, there is an identified requirement for a MEL framework across the WISER programme that will provide a coherent approach for the Met Office, ACPC, DFID and other programme stakeholders.


LTS is ensuring that the programme has a robust MEL framework that can be effectively implemented. The MEL approach will ensure good evidence for learning can be generated about the programme. LTS is developing the log frame, theory of change and MEL plans/guidance for the WISER programme and regional projects. The work is soundly based on existing and emerging understanding of the monitoring and evaluation of weather climate programmes, DFID best practice and link with the International Climate Fund (ICF) indicators where appropriate.

Value and benefits

WISER aims to coherently focus on service delivery and on making a step change in the quality, reach and application of weather and climate information.

This will better inform regional, national, sectoral and sub-national and community level policy, planning and decision-making in Africa, promoting more sustainable development.


Formulation of the Future Cooperation in the Kenyan Forestry Sector

Finland Government support to reforms has been through the 2007 – 2016 bilateral programme “Miti Mingi Maisha Bora – Support to Forest Sector Reform (MMMB)”. Although Finland has been supporting Kenya forest sector for more than 20 years, there is still need to take the next step. Under this assignment, a 4-year programme for the future Finnish-Kenyan cooperation in the field of forest sector development to be implemented from 2018 was designed.

  • LTS worked with Indufor Oy Finland to formulate the 4-year programme (Private Forestry and Forest Enterprise Support in Kenya).
  • The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA), Finland and the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources in Kenya are the key government authorities that worked with LTS.
  • The formulation process was supported by a Kenya government-led Joint Planning Team (JPT) to enhance ownership of the programme.
  • The initial planned duration of the future intervention is four years and the maximum Finnish contribution is 10 million Euros.


With population growth, urbanization and economic development, consumption of forest products in Kenya will continue to increase considerably. The structure and efficiency of the industry at the moment is not sufficient to fulfil the demand of industrial wood products. Unless domestic production is considerably increased through industry growth and productivity improvements, imports bills especially of paper products and wood based panels are likely to increase significantly. Furthermore, the growth in consumption of wood energy will put increasing pressure on the indigenous forests and woodlands. Investments in the Kenyan forests and wood based industries provide a good opportunity to create profitable businesses as well as generate income and employment in poor rural areas.


LTS was involved in identification and formulation of several project concept notes that presented realistic project alternatives, different in terms of project approach, strategy and modality. The notes were analysed by the MFA and Government of Kenya and a decision made on the future cooperation’s strategic scope and approach. The selected concept note was developed by LTS and Indufor into a forest sector programme design document titled “Private Forestry and Forest Enterprise Support in Kenya”.

Value and benefits

This programme is expected to contribute to the second impact area of the Finnish Country Strategy 2016 – 2019, “improved access of people to jobs and livelihoods”, through a specific outcome of increasing productivity and economic opportunities in forestry. The expected outcome of the programme is “Increased economic opportunities in forestry for small scale tree growers and Small and Medium Enterprise (SME’s)”.

Samuel Wangaruro

MBA Strategic Management, Catholic University of Eastern Africa, ongoing BCom Accounting, Catholic University of Eastern Africa, 2010 CPA (K), Kenya College of Accountancy, 2005

Samuel is a professional accountant with ten years of professional experience in accounting. He has extensive experience in strategic financial management, budgetary controls, implementing operational improvements, and enhancement of internal control systems. He possesses high ethical standards and integrity, is detail oriented, highly motivated, and an excellent planner who thrives on challenges and is able to prioritise and deliver under tight deadlines. He is a strategic thinker with proven analytical and problem solving skills to make firm decisions. He communicates well, is able to multi-task efficiently, and has excellent team management and leadership abilities.

Scott Geller

MSc Resource Management, University of Edinburgh (UK), 2001; BSc Environmental Studies. University of Vermont, Burlington, United States, 1998.

Scott is an experienced senior executive with a demonstrated history of working in the international development industry for the past 20 years of which 17 years have been with LTS International Ltd.

In his current role, Scott leads the business development function across the LTS Group of companies in the UK, Africa and Asia. He is focused on marketing and sales with strong skills in building great teams, proposal development, negotiation and relationship management. He has been central to LTS’s growth, playing both a strategic and operational role in several aspects of company development and management. In 2010, he was appointed the LTS Group Business Development Director and in 2012 he was appointed the Managing Director of LTS Africa (a wholly owned subsidiary) based in Nairobi.

Throughout his career Scott’s technical work has comprised of consulting on public sector forestry and organisational change from national processes to grassroots level. He has worked on long-term projects as an embedded advisor in the Governments of Uganda (2002-2004, DFID) and Kenya (2007-2009, USAID). In both instances, he provided high-level advisory support on the establishment and restructuring of government forestry services. Scott brings a competence in forest sector reform and institutional development with proven success in guiding strategic planning initiatives, organisational improvements, and corporate governance. Scott is Contract Director on several African assignments.

Prior to joining LTS, Scott worked for the Global Programme on Forests under United Nations Development Programme.

Irene Karani

Having worked on all major Government of Kenya adaptation planning and investment efforts, Irene is Kenya’s leading adaptation expert. Irene has over 20 years in climate change related issues, disaster risk management, natural resource management and rural livelihoods with communities in Africa. She is conversant with the socio-environmental issues in a range of ecosystems and land uses. Irene has undertaken more than 100 consulting assignments covering over 10 countries in the region and is highly experienced in the design, management and implementation and evaluation of projects/programmes related to natural resource management (environmental management, climate change adaptation, conservation and carbon sequestration,), food security, water and sanitation, nutrition and health, pastoralism, conflict management, gender mainstreaming, capacity building, humanitarian interventions in water and animal health, drought cycle management, and eco-tourism and poverty alleviation. Irene has very strong monitoring and evaluation skills having worked to design project and programme M&E systems at the organisational and community levels and is conversant with the sustainable livelihoods framework and key issues of poverty alleviation with regard to pastoralist livelihoods. Other qualities include strong project management skills, capacity assessments, training and strategic planning processes having conducted these at community, national and regional levels. Irene’s greatest achievements in climate change include: management of the Kenya Adaptation Technical Analysis under the Kenya National Climate Change Action Planning process by working with government, private sector and civil society actors; development and finalisation of Kenya’s first National Adaptation Plan; leading the successful completion of Kenya’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) through collaboration with government, private sector and civil society; implementation of the Tracking Adaptation and Measuring Development (TAMD) framework in Kenya, Mozambique, Uganda, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Zanzibar and Sudan; providing technical expertise on adaptation to Uganda’s Green Growth Strategy amongst others. She is also the Senior Advisor on Livelihoods and Climate Change in the USAID Planning for Resilience in East Africa through Policy, Adaptation and Economic Development Project (PREPARED). Irene has experience in Burundi, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Somalia (incl. Puntland, Somaliland and Central Somalia), Sudan (Khartoum), Southern Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and Zanzibar.

Rose Ochieng

BA (Cum Laude) Social Work, Daystar University, Kenya, 2011.

Rose has 7 years’ experience doing research and policy work. She has worked as a research and project assistant as well as data analyst providing support in several projects, programmes and consultancies in East Africa and the United Kingdom for national governments, international agencies and donor organisations. Ms. Ochieng has provided technical and intellectual support to projects, programmes and consultancies in land reforms, gender, social inclusion and poverty, agriculture including climate smart agriculture (CSA), rural development, monitoring and evaluation and climate change.

Rose has extensive experience in gender related issues. She has supported several gender assignments including research on women’s social, economic and political participation, women’s empowerment and gender analysis in infrastructure. Ms. Ochieng is well versed in research methodologies and report writing. She also has project management experience and has assisted with project management tasks including reporting, quality assurance of deliverables, organising meetings and workshops and communication with clients in several projects at LTSA.    

Michael Gachanja

MSc Range Management (Ecology), University of Nairobi, 1996; BSc Range Management (First Class Honours), University of Nairobi, 1990.

For the Last 22 years, Michael has worked for various institutions with duties ranging from advising national government institutions to designing and implementing large-scale national and transboundary natural resource management programmes in East Africa.  Prior to joining LTS in January 2016, Michael was the Executive Director of the East African Wild Life Society (July 2012– December 2015), its Deputy Director between July 2009 and June 2012 and the National Coordinator of the Kenya Forests Working Group (KFWG) – a consortium of individuals, non-governmental organizations, private sector and government agencies involved in forest conservation in Kenya – (1995 – 2009). Michael’s work at KFWG and East Africa Wild Life Society has today shaped the forestry sector in Kenya and influenced natural resource management policy changes at the regional level. At LTS, Michael continues to play a leading role in forest sector governance in East Africa, and Africa at large. 

His contribution to the forestry sector was the basis of his appointment as the Technical Advisor at Kenya’s Prime Minister’s office Mau Interim Coordinating Secretariat (ICS) that was formed in 2009 to oversee the implementation of the 2009 Mau Forest Complex Task Force recommendations. Michael was also a member of this task force between 2008 and 2009. In recognition of his work in NGOs, Michael was nominated by the United States Department of State to the International Visitor Leadership Programme on NGOs in 2006.

Michael has facilitated many policy processes in Kenya leading to enactment of new laws such as the Forests Conservation and Management Act, 2016, Wildlife Conservation and Management Act, 2013, Land Act 2012, the National Land Commission Act 2012 and the Land Registration Act, 2012. Michael has authored many natural resource management policy background reports and papers in East Africa. At the African regional level, Michael has facilitated many Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade (FLEGT) and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) processes.

He has been involved in the development of climate change plans, strategies, policies, papers and reports in East Africa. He has also contributed to implementation of many projects and programmes involved in integration of climate change. As a certified lead auditor for the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), Michael has conducted many forest management and Chain of Custody certification audits for Soil Association in Kenya and South Sudan.

Michael has undertaken over 80 consultancies. 

Review of Governance of the Forest Sector in Kenya

This governance study aims at providing a clear picture on how governance aspects of the forest reform agenda in Kenya (initiated in 2007 following enactment of a new law – Forests Act 2005) have taken shape since 2011 when a similar study was undertaken.

  • Contracted by the Finnish Government, this assignment supports efforts to ensure future forestry incorporates good governance for development in Kenya.
  • The review provides forest sector public and private institutions and a broad set of stakeholders with analysis and recommendations to inform implementation of the National Forest Programme.
  • The analysis is organised along the five major building blocks of good forest governance as defined by the World Bank 2009 “Roots for Good Forest Outcomes: An Analytical Framework for Governance Reforms”.


Unprecedented deforestation in Kenya between 1980s and early 2002 relating to poor forest governance led to a public dissent and a sustained civil society campaign to reform the forest sector. As a result, forest sector reforms driven by the Forests Act 2005 have been ongoing since 2007.  Good forest governance is fundamental to achieving positive and sustained development outcomes in the sector, including efficiency of resource management, increased contribution to economic growth and to environmental services, and equitable distribution of benefits.


LTS’ work included:

  • an assessment of the current situation of the Kenyan forest sector based on recent trends and actions at different levels,
  • an overall understanding on progress or lack of progress made in forest governance,
  • an opinion on the progress made based on the 2011 proposed indicators regarding the implementation of governance reforms, and concrete recommendations for further action to improve forest governance addressed to specific institutions and stakeholders.

Value and Benefits

The recommendations of the review informed the National Forest Programme (NFP). The proposed actions are expected to be integrated into the operational activities of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MENR) – charged with overseeing the implementation of NFP, KFS and other stakeholders, and the forest sector devolution process.