Portfolio Review and Gap Analysis for the Multi-Sectoral Investment Plan for Climate Resilience

Ethiopia’s Multi-Sector Investment Plan for Climate Resilience pursues a multi-sectoral approach that identifies priority investments in the agriculture, forestry, water, livestock and energy sectors that enhance climate resilience.  The multi-sectoral approach is being used to enhance the likelihood of achieving the transformational effects required from Ethiopia’s green growth strategies.

This assignment reviews existing investments and gaps in the resilience building portfolio and will develop the investment plan.

  • LTS is leading the assignment, working with E-Co and Echnoserve.
  • The assignment is contracted by The World Bank on behalf of the Government of Ethiopia.
  • The work supports Ethiopia’s efforts towards a climate resilient green economy.


Ethiopia has set ambitious objectives for strengthening climate resilience and protecting her environment. This has been articulated in the national green growth strategies, as well as specifically in sectoral resilience plans for agriculture, forest, water and energy. Significant advances have been made, and now further action is planned. A multi-sectoral investment plan, based on thorough review of existing projects and assessment of gaps remaining to be filled, is required.


LTS has been contracted to carry out:

  • Portfolio review and gap analysis – Assessing policy and programming gaps and areas of significant investment need.
  • Multi-stakeholder Investment plan development – including project fiches, and with a focus on: upscaling successful activities and reducing duplication and overlap.

Being implemented in a tight timeframe, the work involves significant stakeholder consultation and deep understanding of the Ethiopian resilience context across these sectors, alongside competencies in preparing adequately detailed investments plans.

Value and benefits

Coordinated and scaled up plans will reduce transactional costs of, create confidence in and speed up investment in efforts to build resilience in Ethiopia.

Development of MEL Approach for the Weather and Climate Information Services for Africa

The DFID-funded Weather and Climate Information Services for Africa (WISER programme) aims to empower local communities and decision-makers through a better understanding of weather and climate. It funds a range of activities, from strengthening climate information partnerships to enhancing national climate services.

LTS is developing a monitoring, evaluation and learning (MEL) approach for WISER.

  • The 4-year £35million WISER programme operates across Africa, with a focus on the Lake Victoria Basin.
  • The programme partners include the UK Met Office and the Africa climate Policy Centre, based in Ethiopia.
  • The Met office is the fund manager, contracting the MEL inputs.
  • LTS is leading the MEL development work, with significant inputs from our LTS-Africa team.


Although there have been many useful initiatives to strengthen weather and climate information and services across Africa in the last decade or so, the availability and uptake of information and services is still relatively low. This represents a threat to social and economic development.

WISER aims to address the very diverse barriers to uptake and use of weather and climate services.

With a range of partners and a broad scope, there is an identified requirement for a MEL framework across the WISER programme that will provide a coherent approach for the Met Office, ACPC, DFID and other programme stakeholders.


LTS is ensuring that the programme has a robust MEL framework that can be effectively implemented. The MEL approach will ensure good evidence for learning can be generated about the programme. LTS is developing the log frame, theory of change and MEL plans/guidance for the WISER programme and regional projects. The work is soundly based on existing and emerging understanding of the monitoring and evaluation of weather climate programmes, DFID best practice and link with the International Climate Fund (ICF) indicators where appropriate.

Value and benefits

WISER aims to coherently focus on service delivery and on making a step change in the quality, reach and application of weather and climate information.

This will better inform regional, national, sectoral and sub-national and community level policy, planning and decision-making in Africa, promoting more sustainable development.


Background Paper and Analysis of Country Data to Support Development of Comprehensive Landscape Methodological Approach

The BioCarbon Fund Initiative for Sustainable Forest Landscapes (ISFL) seeks to promote reduced greenhouse gas emissions from land-use in four programme countries: Colombia, Ethiopia, Indonesia, and Zambia. This assignment is to produce a background document to support future discussions on the development of a comprehensive landscape methodological approach for accounting greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction to allow a result-based finance mechanism.

  • LTS is leading the project, managing all inputs (deploying a multi-disciplinary team of experts) and taking direct responsible for the data review and collection in two of the programme countries Indonesia and Ethiopia.
  • Our partners Ecofys and Shared Value Africa are responsible for technical work in Colombia and Zambia respectively.
  • The project output will feed into a stakeholder workshop among the ISFL contributors (Germany, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America), planned for December 2016.

Countries are already reporting their GHG emissions using Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methods. However further work is required to account for emission reductions with sufficient confidence to allow for result-based payments in the future. The ISFL seeks to develop a methodological approach that will confidently support results-based payments for comprehensive accounting of emission reductions across the entire AFOLU (Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses) sector.


To address the challenges, LTS’ key activities include:

  • Providing a description of the key concepts in the IPCC guidelines to ensure common understanding among ISFL Contributors;
  • Providing an analysis of available historic relevant data in the relevant ISFL program countries;
  • Identifying key decisions and options going forward;
  • Presenting and explaining the results to the ISFL contributors through a project workshop and final report.

Value and benefits

A thorough and comprehensive methodological approach to report GHG emission reductions, accurately enough to allow result-based financing at a landscape level across the four Programme Countries, will be developed through this project.

Rebecca Adler

MSc with Distinction, Environmental Sustainability, University of Edinburgh, 2011; BA, International Relations, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, 2004

Rebecca has a solid understanding of programme management, framework management and coordination as well as technical expertise in natural resource and forest management. In her role at LTS, Rebecca supports a variety of initiatives, including several FLEGT programmes, such as the on-going support to the Liberia VPA programme. She is well versed in providing support and expertise to complex forestry programmes as she has previously managed several long-term multi-million dollar USAID environmental management programmes. In addition, she is experienced in framework management and coordination, having supported activities and call down contracts for the USAID PLACE IQC. In these positions, she frequently managed complex budgets, developed technical field based activities and maintained relationships with key partners and stakeholders. In addition, she frequently travelled to projects and contributed to the development of workplans, logical frameworks and performance monitoring plans and created programme reports and communication materials. Most recently, Ms. Adler has completed an MSc at the University of Edinburgh where her studies focused on analyzing international policies related to forestry management, climate change and environmental management. In addition, she studied political science at University of Paris VIII and is fluent in French.

Kirsty Wilson

MSc: Environmental Change and Management, University of Oxford (distinction) (2013), BA Social and Political Sciences with a specialism in Social Anthropology, University of Cambridge (2001)

Kirsty Wilson has nearly fifteen years of progressively senior experience in design, delivery and monitoring and evaluation of inclusive rural development programmes. She is an experienced team leader and project director with a keen interest in climate resilience, food security and social protection, and smallholder agriculture.

Kirsty is passionate about ensuring public investment in international development gets to where it is needed in an effective and efficient way. She has held several long-term evaluation Team Leader roles and has provided a range of technical and research inputs on climate and agricultural policy. Prior to joining LTS, she led the Africa Climate Change Resilience Alliance in Ethiopia, worked as a technical advisor to the Ethiopian Ministry of Agriculture and was Head of Policy at Oxfam GB Ethiopia. She worked with researchers and practitioners to design approaches to building adaptive capacity at community level and worked to integrate these into national policy and large-scale Government programmes, including the national social protection programme.

At LTS, she has worked on evaluation and investment planning for the UK Government (Departments for International Development and Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy), Norad, the World Bank as well as impact investors and NGOs. Kirsty remains passionate about finding cost-effective approaches to supporting smallholder farmers to manage risk and grow their livelihoods. In 2011, she was co-editor of a book Small Farmers, Big Change which presented case studies on achieving change at scale through public investment in the smallholder sector. She has continued to work on the design and evaluation of a number of market-based agricultural programmes, with a particular focus on climate smart approaches.

Kirsty has a deep knowledge of donor practices and requirements, a unique range of long-term overseas work experience, qualitative and quantitative research skills, and a demonstrated record of strategic leadership. She has worked in Cameroon, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia as well as on several global and African regional programmes.

Patrick Abbot

MSc Human Resources Management and Development, IDPM, University of Manchester, (UK) 2006;

PhD, University of Aberdeen (UK) 1997;

MSc Forest Business Management, University of Aberdeen (UK) 1991;

BSc (Joint Hons) Biological Sciences and Geography, University of Birmingham (UK) 1988.

A Director since 2007, Paddy became Managing Director of LTS in January 2009. He started his career by setting up an environmental NGO with friends back in 1987, which brought the concept of people and forests to schools and homes in the UK through educational programmes, film and popular publicity. In the subsequent years, he built-up field experience in the areas of ecology, socio-economics, and organisational development and supported institutional strengthening at local and national levels. Paddy remains passionate about development and the environment and he now combines a company management role with consultancy work. This consultancy focuses on supporting monitoring and evaluation processes for a range of clients and delivering institutional assessments and policy analyses, particularly in the context of environmental change. Co-author of a review for DFID of development policy and the Clean Development Mechanism to enhance financing of development in Sub-Saharan Africa.

M&E Support to the Market Opportunities in the Somali Region of Ethiopia (MORE) project

Mercy Corps is leading the project “Market Opportunities in the Somali Region of Ethiopia (MORE)” over a 54 month period. Mercy Corps is working with the Somali Regional State to provide equitable and visible improvements in livelihoods and resilience, and increasing the economic opportunities of vulnerable groups.

LTS International is providing monitoring and evaluation (M&E) support to the consortium led by Mercy Corps. LTS has designed the Monitoring and Evaluation System, which will be based on a theory of change approach. The LTS did an ex-ante Cost Benefit Analysis for the six proposed interventions; and designed a rolling baseline survey approach that will enable statistical attribution of impact to programme activities.

In the remainder of the programme, LTS will provide training for staff on the M&E System, deliver annual household surveys, and evaluate the programme at the mid-term and final points.

Study of Value Chain Development under the Sustainable Land Management Programme (SLMP) II in Ethiopia

The Sustainable Land Management Program (SLMP) II is the continuation of one of the Government of Ethiopia’s flagship programs, with the objective of reversing land and environmental degradation.

This study supported SLMP II by exploring value chains of income generation activities/commodities, proposing those with potential for development and identifying policy gaps hindering this.

  • SLMP II runs from 2014-2018 and is a multi-donor support effort to scale up landscape restoration in 135 watersheds across Ethiopia.
  • Norway is one of the funders of the program with the total amount of NOK 305 million.
  • Norway’s support is combined with resources from the World Bank IDA, GEF and LCDF to provide a total program budget of USD 107.61 million.
  • This LTS-led study supported the SLMP II to become more sustainable in the long term.


SLMP II has been successful in halting land degradation, raising biomass productivity and yields. Households also engage in income generating activities. However, apart from local market and the available knowledge, interventions are not linked to value chain development and market access is therefore a constraint to the development of livelihoods and protection of natural resource management gains.


This scoping study included value chain mapping, research and analysis, using a combination of primary and secondary data sources.  The value chain analysis:

  • Identified priority commodities for further study.
  • Assessed policies and market factors that might limit the involvement of the private sector in those value chains.
  • Proposed how to develop those value chains.
  • Offered recommendations for future work, including a rapid assessment of processing /value addition.

 Value and benefits

The goal of the assignment was to support SLMP to become sustainable beyond the project lifetime, ensuring that development of livelihoods and protection of natural resource management gains are maintained.

Development of a Pipeline Programme and Investment Strategy to Access the Green Climate Fund

LTS is supporting the Government of Ethiopia to develop a pipeline programme and investment strategy focused on the water sector to access funds from the GCF. Working closely with both Ethiopia’s Ministry of Finance and Economic Development (MOFED) and Ministry of Environment and Forests (MEF) who manage the Climate Resilient Green Economy (CRGE) Financing Facility, LTS designed an intensive programme of support for the Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Energy (MoWIE) and to generate an updated project preparation manual for all sectors. Expert advice was also provided to the CRGE Facility on possible prioritisation and application-development processes. A deep familiarity with GCF procedures and ongoing board decisions was required.

LTS mobilised a multi-disciplinary team of 10 experts, who worked in close coordination with 7 members of MoWIE, and key members of MEF and MoFED. The proposal has been broken down into 6 components, with responsibility for each given to a component lead from within the MoWIE. This helped build knowledge and capacity within the country for proposal writing, as well as for the sector to develop and maintain a level of ownership over the outputs. Each section has been written in line with the GCF criteria and guidance, and has been supported and developed via a process of consultation and alignment with CRGE priorities.

The proposed GCF programme will begin to implement the climate resilient water strategy by acting as an innovation hub for the strategy; testing a range of new approaches, which together can transform the way water is managed in Ethiopia. A key focus will be on the testing of an integrated, ecosystem-based approach to water management as a basis for building effective adaptation and for delivering a combination of both climate resilient and low carbon benefits. With an initial investment of $40 million (against an overall target of $345 million for implementing the full strategy over the first 5 years), the proposed programme has also been designed to add value through facilitating knowledge and learning, which supports building capacity and expertise within key Ethiopian institutions for future programming.

By the end of the contract (December 2015) LTS will have produced the following: inception report, provided updates to the Ethiopian GCF Development Manual, a GCF full proposal, GCF concept note, training workshop, project prioritisation, theory of change and the relevant CDKN forms and reports. The LTS team worked alongside the Government economist to guide the financial modelling.

M&E Support to the Market Approaches to Resilience (MAR) Project

Market Approaches to Resilience (MAR) is testing market-based approaches to improving the resilience of vulnerable pastoralist and agro-pastoralist households to climate change in Ethiopia. LTS International is the M&E Agent for MAR.

  • MAR is implemented by Farm Africa for DFID in the Afar, SNNP and Somali regions of Ethiopia.
  • It is part of DFID’s multi-country Building Resilience to Climate Extremes and Disasters (BRACED) programme.
  • It is a 3-year programme with a total budget of almost £7 million.
  • LTS is contracted by Farm-Africa


Increasing climate uncertainty and variability have brought many pastoralist and agro-pastoralist communities in Ethiopia’s lowlands, who are heavily dependent on natural resources, to the edge of survival. 

MAR is testing innovative market-based approaches to improving the climate resilience of vulnerable pastoralist and agro-pastoralist households and BRACED will leverage and engage private investment where possible.

A rigorous approach to evaluation of the pilots is needed to generate a strong body of evidence and lessons for change.


LTS provides rigorous monitoring and evaluation support to ensure lessons are captured and digested. This includes:

  • Development of the M&E System, theory of change, logframe, indicators and data sources, ensuring alignment with the BRACED M&E Systems and Guidance;
  • Development of a resilience indicator (KPI4) to report to the UK government’s International Climate Fund;
  • Developing the baseline survey tool and designing and implementing the baseline survey, including impact assessment methodology;
  • Developing the innovative Rangeland Vegetation NDVI monitoring tool (RaVeN) which uses freely available optical and radar satellite data to monitor the availability of quality pasture;

Conducting mid-term and final evaluations and impact assessment.

Value and benefits

MAR’s intended impact is that Pastoralist, agro-pastoralist and peri-urban households in lowland areas of Ethiopia cope, adapt and transform in the face of climate extremes and disasters for improved well-being. Effective M&E will help it achieve this.

Update (September 2015): New Briefing Note on Market Approaches to Resilience

Mountain View

For more information, please visit the BRACED website here.