The challenges imposed by a changing climate in Africa, in particular the requirements for adaptation are significant. Adequate funding and technological assistance to support adaptation are required, possibly under a legally binding framework. However, there are many outstanding questions concerning for example the key vulnerabilities and priorities for support, the scale of funding required, and the best ways of administering support and the optimum design of effective, accountable and transparent ‘adaptation governance’. In order to support demands for adaptation finance and goal-oriented administration of such funds, Heinrich BÃ¶ll Foundation Nairobi commissioned LTS to undertake country case studies in Uganda and Tanzania. The overall aim was to evaluate the state of preparedness for climate change adaptation in these countries through a policy, legal, institutional and technical analysis.