Rwanda is undergoing change as a consequence of environmental change, population growth and structural transformations in the agriculture / rural sector. Recent analysis on the impact of climate change on rural livelihood and agriculture in Rwanda shows that there is a high level of uncertainty about potential change effects; and this will depend on a range of natural factors and their interplay with a complex range of social, economic and institutional factors. The overall adaptation strategy in agriculture was to develop a resilient and diversified rural economy. CARE Rwanda, with support from CARE Austria, requested LTS to guide programmatic thinking on climate change adaptation. The assignment focused on a region in northern Rwanda to provide tangible and actionable recommendations related to farming systems across the volcanic soils of the Virunga volcanoes, Northern and Western provinces.