This assignment evaluated a cluster of five “closed” Darwin projects in Brazil. Four of the five projects were well implemented, achieved their objectives and have had lasting long term impacts. They represented excellent value for money and produced results in excess of the value of the investment by Darwin Initiative. They have made important contributions to helping Brazil implement the Biodiversity Convention. Highlights of the outcomes of these four projects include: demonstration of the value of a fiscal incentive (the ICMS Ecologico) in encouraging municipal governments to promote conservation and create protected areas; establishment of a long term programme of research and monitoring of river dolphin populations and behaviour which has made very important contributions to the management and conservation of Amazonian flooded forests; repatriation of herbarium data on the flora of northeast Brazil, strengthening the capacity of local herbaria and academic and research institutions and improving the quantity and quality of botanical research outputs; and demonstration of the socio-economic importance of Amazon fisheries and evidence that co-management initiatives can safeguard the future of the fishery and conserve biodiversity.