This assignment evaluated a cluster of five closed Darwin projects in India and Nepal. Three of the projects reviewed were set up in response to the catastrophic vulture declines in India and Nepal from the 1990s onwards. These well planned, effective and dedicated projects, which were timely and responsive to an immediate need, could provide a model for other Darwin projects. Their impact has been felt far and wide. A key strength that made the projects relevant was the responsiveness in their approach (and that of the Darwin Initiative) when the initial hypothesis of a viral epidemic being the primary cause of vulture decline was superseded by the probable cause of the ingestion of a veterinary analgesic drug in livestock. Diclofenac was found to cause renal failure and consequently death in vultures when they ate the carcasses, according to research conducted by another organisation in Pakistan.