The programme sought to improve the livelihoods of small-scale rural poor farmers in the Lake Victoria area. This was achieved through direct assistance – through tree planting and agroforestry to improve land management, to increase food and nutritional security, fuelwood availability and income. LTS was contracted by SIDA to undertake the ‘assessment study’ of the Vi programme, which had not seen an evaluation for four years. The team appraised the relevance and efficiency of activities, specifically Vi’s technical progress, capacity and cost efficiency in relation to its goals and objectives. It looked at the socio-economic impact of the activities with regard to gender, income generation and improved livelihoods of the poor. It also examined the ecological impact and sustainability of activities, the degree of local participation, the efficiency and cost effectiveness of project management, the M&E system, and sources of financing.