The Drought Chapter of GAR13

In coordination with UNISDR’s Risk Knowledge Section, LTS worked with Save the Children to generate innovative drought risk analysis by developing key recommendations to be presented in GAR13 by collating and analysing at least 9 recent peer reviewed or grey literature, highlighting the latest findings to fit the GAR report analysis 2 days prior to the meeting and 3 days after the meeting; contributing to the development of the zero order of the drought chapter of GAR13; and analysing the comments received after first peer review. The preliminary findings of this analysis were presented as part of the thematic focus of the 2013 Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction. Vulnerability of rural livelihoods to natural hazards and increased exposure of agricultural production and supply chains have to be viewed against the backdrop of recent trends in the global economy, including the liberalisation of trade, high price volatility of food in global markets and the securitisation of commodities, including agricultural products.

Enabling REDD-Oriented Forest Management and Investment in East Kalimantan, Indonesia


East Kalimantan has been selected by GoI as the pilot province for trialing a national REDD+ program with sub-national jurisdictional implementation under the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF). If the proposed program is approved, the provincial government and its partners will implement a range of actions and policies designed to avoid or mitigate GHG emissions from forest loss and forest degradation. The FCPF Carbon Fund, managed by the World Bank, will make payments for verified emissions reductions monitored and reported by the national REDD+ authority in the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MEF). The FCPF could potentially allocate more than USD 100 million to Indonesia between 2018 and 2024.

It is anticipated that these revenues will be distributed through a benefit-sharing scheme with provincial and other sub-national jurisdictional actors. It is also anticipated that many of the actions under the FCPF program will be implemented through the provincial network of Forest Management Units (FMUs).

This project has been developed to support the provincial Forestry Agency to strengthen the capacity and readiness of forest management units to contribute to and derive benefits from the proposed FCPF program. The support will consist of two components: (1) assessment of forest potential, biodiversity, and socio-economic dimensions for FMUs without completed management plans and (2) business planning for operational FMUs with management plans.


The Forest Management Unit (FMU) or Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan (KPH) conceived in 1999 and now at center stage, represents a strategic solution for forest development in Indonesia. It is expected that 340 KPHs will be established and operational by 2019 (including 21 in East Kalimantan). Thus far 90 are operational, yet capacity to deliver is low. The KPH is the main vehicle to link national and decentralized policies and practices. The new Law on Regional Autonomy has strengthened the role of the KPHs as the key focal point for sustainable forest management (SFM), including licensing at the provincial level. In order to be fully operational, KPH has to meet the following requirements: (i) legalised Rencana Pengelolaan Hutan Jangka Panjang (Long Term Forest Management Plan); (ii) Rencana Pengelolaan Hutan Jangka Pendek (Short Term Forest Management Plan); and (iii) Business Plan on how to make the FMU independent and self-supporting.

The KPH plays a strategic role in improved forest governance as it is mandated to: i) conduct forest governance and zonation within the KPH area; ii) develop forest management plan within KPH area, including sustainable KPH development plans; iii) carry out development, monitoring and evaluation on forest management conducted by the permit holders; iv) carry out forest rehabilitation and reclamation; v) ensure adequate protection of forests and conservation of biodiversity, natural resources and ecological functions; vi) implement sustainable production oriented management of specific areas of forest under the auspices of Public Service Agencies (BLU) and/or Regional Public Service Agencies (BLUD); vii) translate forestry policy into innovative effective and practical approaches to forest management; viii) ensure the enforcement of forestry law, including safeguarding integrity and functionality of conservation areas (kawasan konservasi) protected forests (hutan lindung), protected zones (zona lindung) and conservation easements; ix) identify and develop appropriate investments in order to support achievement of SFM goals.

This GGGI-funded project will assist provincial authorities prepare for REDD+ results-based finance payments. The project aims to support development of selected FMUs in East Kalimantan. As set out in the Terms of Reference, this will be achieved through a combination of assessments for preparing FMU Management Plans, establishing REDD+ oriented FMU Business Plans and supporting the mobilization of FMUs as BLUDs through targeted institutional development and mobilization of public and private finance. 

  • Component 1: Assessing the conditions of landscapes, natural resources, biodiversity and socio-economic characteristics to support the development of 11 FMUs Management Plans.
  • Component 2: Operationalizing at least 5 FMUs with Business Plans and operational capacities to turn the FMUs into BLUDs.

The two components are technically aligned and operationally inter-connected. Component 1 provides technical information for FMU management planning and frames the wider context that will position the development of FMU Management Plans and FMU Business Plans to achieve REDD+ oriented outcomes. Component 2 focuses on the development of 5 FMU Business Plans that will serve as examples for replication later on in the 11 FMUs now progressing with management planning. Training related to FMU management planning (Comp. 1) and business planning (Comp. 2) cover partly similar topics and hence provide for combined interventions. 

Preparation of the Comprehensive CRGE National Capacity Support Programme for GGGI Ethiopia

The overall objective of LTS’ consultancy was to help to design the guiding framework to enable CRGE implementing ministries to identify existing capacity gaps and needs to implement and manage capacity development activities required to operationalise the CRGE. This included the development of a set of CRGE assessment tools aimed at assessing woreda, regional and federal level capacities to implement CRGE.

GGGI is an interdisciplinary, multi-stakeholder international organisation, driven by the needs of emerging and developing countries.  It is dedicated to pioneering a new model of economic growth, known as “green growth”, which simultaneously targets economic performance, environmental sustainability and social inclusion. The Government of Indonesia signed a GGGI’s Establishment Agreement in Seoul in September 2012 with the Norwegian Agency for International Development backing and financing. LTS reviewed the GGGI programme in Indonesia for the period 2012-14. The review was forward looking, to help GGGI revise its objectives and provide recommendations on how the programme can increase its strategic impact in relevant sectors, especially forests.

Tree Fund for Africa

African countries have pledged to restore 100 million hectares of degraded land (mostly with trees) by 2030 as part of the ‘AFR100 Initiative’. As an example, Kenya has pledged 5.1 million hectares to AFR100, of which tree planting is planned on 3 million hectares. Further, the country has pledged to restore forest cover to 10% from it’s existing base of just under 6%. Both these targets imply a need to plant around 200,000 hectares per year between now and 2030. The hypotheses behind the Tree Fund is that lack of appropriate finances is hindering tree planting in Africa. The Tree Fund comes in to fill in this need. The key deliverables of this project are:

Phase 1.

  1. Discussion paper documenting the business case for the Tree Fund.
  2. High level Excel based dataset of potential pipeline. To include classification of different types of entity the Tree Fund could work with and their key details (e.g number of hectares currently planted, number of members, potential to expand etc)     

Phase 11.

  1. Tree Fund Business Plan that include: expected environmental, social and economic benefits of Tree Fund; market analysis; business model; organisation structure and staffing; fundraising strategy; marketing strategy & pipeline; financial projections; and funding requirements.
  2. Excel based fund portfolio economic model.

Thematic Evaluation on Violence Against Women

The thematic evaluation focused on areas that were critical to ensuring sustained contribution for development results and changing priorities at the global and regional levels in the context of violence against women (VAW) in Somalia and Kenya. It covered issues related to policies, practice areas, partnerships and programmatic approaches and modalities. It was exploratory, theory and approach based, focusing mainly on effectiveness of the strategies and interventions employed and capture experiences, practice and knowledge coming from the strategies and interventions. In line with this the evaluation, assessed implementation of the UN women action to end VAW in the East and Horn of Africa sub-region for the last 5 years. It also included the development of a theory of change for action against VAW in order to contribute to long term changes in the area of VAW for Kenya and Somalia programmes.  LTS provided a desk-based analysis of UN Women action to end VAW from both a sub-regional perspective and at country level and provided forward looking recommendations and a potential Theory of Change to strengthen programming in the area of VAW in the sub-region.

Gender Economic Empowerment Analysis


LTSA is conducting research of 5 projects selected from Vuna’s innovation models portfolio in order to generate findings to enhance Vuna’s evidence base about the impact of CSA delivery mechanisms on women’s economic empowerment and reduced gender productivity gaps. We are using the GALS framework which is a household methodology embedded on behaviour change at household level.

The research is action based where LTS will continue with the data gathering, action planning and ongoing monitoring in the implementation of the Theory-Based Approach, Gender Action Learning System and the Research Reporting.


In the countries where Vuna works, there are significant differences in the roles and responsibilities of rural men and women in their communities, households and fields as well as different social norms and expectations that govern the behaviour of each. Vuna made a commitment to ensure gender issues were mainstreamed in all of its investments and agreed to invest additional resources in a sub-set of projects in order to learn about how CSA can be delivered in a way that also contributes to transformation in gender relationships – enhancing women’s economic empowerment and challenging inequitable gender relations at the household level.


LTS conducted the gender research using GALS, a household methodology primarily used by farmer organisations and development agencies to help farmers build more collaborative intra-household decision-making processes. We used the GALS tools to produce rigorous qualitative data in the research domains and to provide farmers with analytic and planning tools they could use for planning their own lives over the long term.

Value and Benefits:

The objective of the impact assessment / research study was to enhance Vuna’s evidence base about the impact of CSA delivery mechanisms on women’s economic empowerment (WEE), gender productivity gaps (GPG) and food and nutrition security (FNS). LTS managed to achieve this using the GALS methodology.

You can see our findings in the publication: ‘LTS International. 2018. Lessons from Gender Action Research in five Vuna Innovation Models.Vuna Research Report. Pretoria: Vuna’.

Smallholder Development Unit Impact Evaluation

The SDU impact evaluation will assess the changes in farm productivity, household income and wellbeing of smallholder farmers participating in the SDU-supported outgrower scheme. It will build on the SDU’s internal M&E system and demonstrate the role of SDU in changing the lives of poor rural farming families in Africa.

LTS will use rigorous impact evaluation methodologies that will be appropriate for providing answers to the key evaluation questions.

Key deliverables of the project are:

  1. Inception report at the inception phase
  2. Baseline report
  3. Endline report

Strengthening Resilience for the Poor in Malawi

A new programme of support for climate resilience in Malawi is being planned by DFID, building on earlier work such as the Enhancing Community Resilience Programme. This assignment provides external expert support to the design and development of the new programme’s business case.

  • The new DFID Malawi programme will aim to “Strengthen resilience of poor and vulnerable households to withstand current and future climatic shocks and reduced reliance on humanitarian support”
  • This assignment to support the new programme is led by the Global Climate Adaptation Partnership in collaboration with LTS International, through a PEAKS contract.
  • LTS provides expertise on climate resilience and M&E in Malawi.


Current climate variability, reliance on agriculture and weak coordination in development partners’ responses to chronic vulnerability has led to annual cycles of food insecurity and expensive humanitarian responses in Malawi, one of the poorest countries in the world.

DFID’s current relevant investment in the Enhancing Community Resilience Programme (ECRP) finished in September 2017, and a new phase of support is required.


This assignment supports DFID in its design of a new programme of collaborative support to resilience in Malawi. It is:

  • Developing a clear theory of change for the programme design;
  • Providing targeted evidence and analysis to support the business case development;
  • Demonstrating how a set of options for the new programme will manage current conditions, build resilient livelihoods and address future climate risks;
  • Ensuring links between DFID’s humanitarian, social protection and economic development objectives, addressing gender,
  • Proposing a monitoring and evaluation framework offering adaptive management, lesson learning and the assessment of outcomes and impact.

Value and benefits

The assignment will provide information to allow a consensus to be reached between DFID staff, contributing development partners and Government on the design options.  It will also inform the business case (including evidence to support assumptions in the theory of change, data to support social, environmental and economic aspects, and the economic appraisal case of the business case and suggested management options) to ensure the programme can maximise development impacts and value for money.

New vacancies at LTS!

LTS International has recently been contracted to deliver the inception phase of Prosperity Fund and the programme evaluations.

We are looking to recruit immediate start Programme Evaluation Leads and Portfolio Leads to work on a permanent basis with a 50% Level of Effort focused on Prosperity Fund.

Think you could be suitable?

Visit our current vacancies page to view all vacant roles.