Scaling out Devolved Climate Finance in Tanzania

The project aims to strengthen the resilience of over 1 million people in Tanzania and Zanzibar to increasing climate variability and change, by establishing local level climate adaptation funds in 15 districts in Tanzania and 13 in Zanzibar. LTS is a consortium partner, leading the Monitoring, Evaluation & Learning (MEL) component to provide evidence and learning on the effectiveness of devolved climate finance investments.

  • The project is being led by IIED, in collaboration with the Government of Tanzania and funded by DFID. The five-year project runs from 2016 – 2021.
  • LTS Africa is responsible for the MEL component of the project, valued at GBP 147,900.
  • LTS will work closely with consortium partners to provide MEL support and build the capacity of stakeholders including the government of Tanzania personnel.

As part of capacity building, LTS will apply the Tracking Adaptation and Measuring Development (TAMD) evaluation framework to develop adaptation indicators for national and county level reporting.


The project responds to requests by district and national level institutions for technical assistance in strengthening their institutional capacity for climate resilience and low carbon growth. They recognise that they require support so that devolved climate finance mechanisms can be mainstreamed at district level.

Currently, there are very few models for the decentralisation of climate finance. This project needs to provide practical experience and a tested model for effective and robust disbursement of funds to promote adaptation to climate change that can be replicated throughout Tanzania and Zanzibar.


LTS’s MEL role is to:

  • Collaboratively develop a comprehensive MEL strategy which will justify and explain tracking of project outcomes, detail a capacity building plan on MEL, and ensure capture of evidence of innovative community solutions to climate change.
  • Build capacity – including both classroom training and “on-the-job” mentoring, covering the TAMD framework that will assist them in developing decentralised adaptation MEL frameworks and systems.

Mentor – provide ongoing technical advice, support and training where necessary on climate resilience measurements and MEL requirements, including on TAMD approaches.

Value and benefits

The project will strengthen institutional arrangements to mobilise and deliver finance for investment in local adaptation prioritised by vulnerable communities at sub-district level. It will enhance coordination and integration into national climate change and M&E frameworks for effective climate change planning and budgeting.  It will enable the Governments of Tanzania and Zanzibar to effectively draw down, disburse and monitor the effectiveness of finance from national and international sources to support the building of resilient, economically productive livelihoods, and a climate resilient economy.

Photo credits to Richard Davis

Mid-term Review of Malawi Livelihood programs

The Royal Norwegian Embassy in Lilongwe is funding four development projects as part of its Agriculture and Food Security Portfolio. The purpose of the Mid-Term Review is to assess the achievement of the four projects against the goals, impacts and outputs outlined in the projects document, and propose recommendations for future work and support.

  • Implemented by LTSM Chitukuko Ltd
  • Total contract value: £39,838 GBP
  • The four projects are being assessed individually and as a portfolio


Although the projects differ in their methods of implementation, and in their areas of emphasis, the overall goals are similar, sometimes identical. This, and the potential for inter-project learning, is why the Mid Term Reviews need to be conducted for all four projects simultaneously, as well as assessed overall as a portfolio.


The LTS-led team will:

  • Analyse context, beneficiary needs, project designs, logical frameworks and assumptions;
  • Support the development of appropriate project logic models, indicators and assumptions;
  • Consult with stakeholders (beneficiaries, with field visits);
  • Utilise reliable and appropriate methods for data analysis (e.g. Theory of Change, contribution analysis, institutional analysis, financial analysis);
  • Develop clear and actionable (owned) recommendations;
  • Propose recommendations on inter-project learning, on relevance of programmes for Malawi sectoral and development policies, and on managing risks in future.

Values and Benefits

A workshop to share the review findings and to jointly agree on conclusions and recommendations will be held. This will create a safe space for project implementers to explore what the findings mean for them and develop a jointly owned set of review recommendations that can feasibly be implemented.

Multi Stakeholder Forestry Programme

This assignment is to produce two short synthesis papers for DFID. The first summarising lessons learnt about the impacts of the Multi Stakeholder Forestry Programme (MSFP) on community forestry in Nepal, and the second to assess the effectiveness of the MSFP programme modality in delivering programme outputs and outcomes.

  • Community forestry in Nepal has lead the way at an international level, so lessons from Nepal are important.
  • LTS is applying a small team of Nepali and international expertise covering forest management, governance and communication expertise.
  • They are working closely with DFID Nepal and key Nepali/MSFP stakeholders.


Building on 20 years of support to the forest sector in Nepal, the MSFP (funded by DFID, the Swiss and Finland) set out as a ten-year programme but is closing early.  As the main funder of MSFP, DFID wants to learn about the achievements and constraints faced in the MSFP story, to inform future programming.


Through literature review, field research and stakeholder consultation, the LTS team will collate, analyse and synthesise findings on:

  • the impacts MSFP has achieved on reducing poverty and improving the sustainability of forest management in Nepal; and
  • the effectiveness of the MSFP programme modality in delivering programme outputs and outcomes.

The findings will be prepared into two ten-page papers, accompanied by super-summaries, with full graphic design.

Value and benefits

The papers will be used to inform DFID’s Project Completion Report of MSFP. It will also be used to share the experience of MSFP with DFID Advisers, DFID Senior Management and, where appropriate, with the international forestry community. The lessons presented in the papers will be of wider relevance to DFID programming in Nepal and beyond.

Mid-Term Evaluation of the NAMA Facility

The NAMA Facility has been working since 2013 to support developing countries and emerging economies that show leadership on tackling climate change and that want to implement ambitious climate protection measures (ie Nationally Appropriate mitigation Actions – NAMAs).

LTS was contracted to carry out the Mid-term Evaluation (MTE) of the NAMA Facility.

  • The Facility is funded by Germany, the UK, Denmark and the EC and is managed by a Technical Support Unit (TSU) jointly run by GIZ and KfW.
  • The NAMA Facility specifically addresses the demand for tailor-made climate finance by funding the implementation of ambitious country-led NAMAs, thus delivering concrete greenhouse gas reductions.
  • GIZ contracted LTS to carry out the Mid-term Evaluation (MTE) of the first three proposal funding rounds managed by the Facility, representing €145m.

The MTE is strongly formative: the deliverables will inform further development of the Facility and improvements in its systems.


The NAMA Facility was officially announced by Germany and the United Kingdom at COP18 in Doha, 2012, and €120m committed.  It has since been further funded to €175m by Denmark, the European Commission (EC) and additional UK International Climate Fund (ICF) funding was approved in 2015. It is innovative and involves numerous partners in its governance and implementation.

An external MTE of the NAMA Facility was requested to analyse and improve the understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the Facility, including its governance and management, and the NAMA support project portfolio from the first 3 calls for proposals. It was also assessed in terms of its relevance to different stakeholders, including recipient countries, donors and Delivery Organisations; and consider improvements to its implementation.


LTS has led and managed a mixed methods theory-based MTE, including:

  • Strategic oversight, operational management and coordination of the contract and all related communication and interaction.
  • Design and application of evaluation methodology and data collection tools, using both qualitative and quantitative data (mixed methods including portfolio analysis, evaluation tailored rubrics, cross case comparative analysis for successful and unsuccessful applications, institutional systems review, comparative assessment, data synthesis methods, VfM analysis, perception surveys, and Theory of Change analysis).

Facilitating exchanges of experiences and identifying improvements, lessons learned and best practice to inform the NAMA Facility.

 Values and benefits

This formative evaluation will inform further development of the Facility and improvements in its systems for enhanced effectiveness and impact.

The MTE has explored the role the Facility plays in the context of the wider landscape of climate financing, including its influence in relation to the NDCs and LEDS that provide the framework within which specific NAMA actions may be coordinated and supported. This includes understanding the implications of the Paris COP agreements and the capitalisation of the Green Climate Fund (GCF) on the strategic relevance of the Facility.  

Background Paper and Analysis of Country Data to Support Development of Comprehensive Landscape Methodological Approach

The BioCarbon Fund Initiative for Sustainable Forest Landscapes (ISFL) seeks to promote reduced greenhouse gas emissions from land-use in four programme countries: Colombia, Ethiopia, Indonesia, and Zambia. This assignment is to produce a background document to support future discussions on the development of a comprehensive landscape methodological approach for accounting greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction to allow a result-based finance mechanism.

  • LTS is leading the project, managing all inputs (deploying a multi-disciplinary team of experts) and taking direct responsible for the data review and collection in two of the programme countries Indonesia and Ethiopia.
  • Our partners Ecofys and Shared Value Africa are responsible for technical work in Colombia and Zambia respectively.
  • The project output will feed into a stakeholder workshop among the ISFL contributors (Germany, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America), planned for December 2016.

Countries are already reporting their GHG emissions using Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methods. However further work is required to account for emission reductions with sufficient confidence to allow for result-based payments in the future. The ISFL seeks to develop a methodological approach that will confidently support results-based payments for comprehensive accounting of emission reductions across the entire AFOLU (Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses) sector.


To address the challenges, LTS’ key activities include:

  • Providing a description of the key concepts in the IPCC guidelines to ensure common understanding among ISFL Contributors;
  • Providing an analysis of available historic relevant data in the relevant ISFL program countries;
  • Identifying key decisions and options going forward;
  • Presenting and explaining the results to the ISFL contributors through a project workshop and final report.

Value and benefits

A thorough and comprehensive methodological approach to report GHG emission reductions, accurately enough to allow result-based financing at a landscape level across the four Programme Countries, will be developed through this project.

GROW: Community Oil Palm Outgrower Scheme Operational Model and Financial Plan Development

GROW is a private sector development initiative operating in Liberia to promote pro-poor economic growth and stability through partnerships with the private sector.

This assignment is to develop a robust Oil Palm Outgrower Scheme Operational Model and Financial Plan for Liberia, informed by best practice and lessons learned from oil palm outgrower schemes in different parts of the world.

  • GROW Liberia, managed by Adam Smith International (ASI), is a SIDA funded project.
  • LTS is contracted by ASI for this specific assignment, working with Greenstar Resources.
  • LTS will develop the Outgrower Scheme Operational Model and Financial Plan, with operating procedures conforming to RSPO P&Cs.

By harnessing private sector growth in the oil palm sector, this assignment hopes to substantially increase incomes and employment opportunities for poor women, men and youth.


The Liberian oil palm sector is of vital importance nationally and is dominated by multinational oil palm producers that have been granted significant concessions by the Government of Liberia (GoL). In the Concession Agreements, the GoL has committed itself to raising development finance to establish outgrower schemes. However, little progress has been made in promoting investment and raising finance for community oil palm outgrower schemes since the four large international concessions began operations in Liberia in 2010. This is a systemic constraint to smallholder farmers benefiting from growth in Liberia’s oil palm industry.


LTS is responsible for:

1) Development an Oil Palm Outgrower Scheme Operational Model that will address issues including: land tenure and user rights; selection criteria; plantation management and production training; financial training for participants; institutional and governance structures; integrated agricultural production, sustainable forestry management and conservation.

2) Creation of FPIC Standard Operating Procedures (SoPs) / adaptations to Free Prior Informed Consent (FPIC) guidelines that conform to the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil Principles and Criteria for the Outgrower Scheme implementation.

3) Develop an Outgrower Scheme Financial Plan linked to the Outgrower Scheme Operational Model.

4) Identifying and making initial contact with potential finances to access financing for the Oil Palm Outgrower Scheme programme implementation.

 Value and benefits

The resultant Outgrower Scheme Operational Model and Financial Plan will take into account Liberia’s unique cultural and land tenure context.

GROW’s objective is substantially increased incomes and employment opportunities for a large number of poor women, men and youth, created through agricultural market system change.