Study of Value Chain Development under the Sustainable Land Management Programme (SLMP) II in Ethiopia

The Sustainable Land Management Program (SLMP) II is the continuation of one of the Government of Ethiopia’s flagship programs, with the objective of reversing land and environmental degradation.

This study supported SLMP II by exploring value chains of income generation activities/commodities, proposing those with potential for development and identifying policy gaps hindering this.

  • SLMP II runs from 2014-2018 and is a multi-donor support effort to scale up landscape restoration in 135 watersheds across Ethiopia.
  • Norway is one of the funders of the program with the total amount of NOK 305 million.
  • Norway’s support is combined with resources from the World Bank IDA, GEF and LCDF to provide a total program budget of USD 107.61 million.
  • This LTS-led study supported the SLMP II to become more sustainable in the long term.


SLMP II has been successful in halting land degradation, raising biomass productivity and yields. Households also engage in income generating activities. However, apart from local market and the available knowledge, interventions are not linked to value chain development and market access is therefore a constraint to the development of livelihoods and protection of natural resource management gains.


This scoping study included value chain mapping, research and analysis, using a combination of primary and secondary data sources.  The value chain analysis:

  • Identified priority commodities for further study.
  • Assessed policies and market factors that might limit the involvement of the private sector in those value chains.
  • Proposed how to develop those value chains.
  • Offered recommendations for future work, including a rapid assessment of processing /value addition.

 Value and benefits

The goal of the assignment was to support SLMP to become sustainable beyond the project lifetime, ensuring that development of livelihoods and protection of natural resource management gains are maintained.

Review of Governance of the Forest Sector in Kenya

This governance study aims at providing a clear picture on how governance aspects of the forest reform agenda in Kenya (initiated in 2007 following enactment of a new law – Forests Act 2005) have taken shape since 2011 when a similar study was undertaken.

  • Contracted by the Finnish Government, this assignment supports efforts to ensure future forestry incorporates good governance for development in Kenya.
  • The review provides forest sector public and private institutions and a broad set of stakeholders with analysis and recommendations to inform implementation of the National Forest Programme.
  • The analysis is organised along the five major building blocks of good forest governance as defined by the World Bank 2009 “Roots for Good Forest Outcomes: An Analytical Framework for Governance Reforms”.


Unprecedented deforestation in Kenya between 1980s and early 2002 relating to poor forest governance led to a public dissent and a sustained civil society campaign to reform the forest sector. As a result, forest sector reforms driven by the Forests Act 2005 have been ongoing since 2007.  Good forest governance is fundamental to achieving positive and sustained development outcomes in the sector, including efficiency of resource management, increased contribution to economic growth and to environmental services, and equitable distribution of benefits.


LTS’ work included:

  • an assessment of the current situation of the Kenyan forest sector based on recent trends and actions at different levels,
  • an overall understanding on progress or lack of progress made in forest governance,
  • an opinion on the progress made based on the 2011 proposed indicators regarding the implementation of governance reforms, and concrete recommendations for further action to improve forest governance addressed to specific institutions and stakeholders.

Value and Benefits

The recommendations of the review informed the National Forest Programme (NFP). The proposed actions are expected to be integrated into the operational activities of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MENR) – charged with overseeing the implementation of NFP, KFS and other stakeholders, and the forest sector devolution process.