Development of the National Adaptation Plan

Kenya is extremely susceptible to climate-related events and such events pose a serious threat to the socio-economic development. With climate change projections indicating a rise in frequency and severity of extreme events, the Government of Kenya set out to tackle these challenges in a systemic manner. A National Climate Change Response Strategy (NCCRS) was published in April 2010. The National Adaptation Plan (NAP) built on the NCCRS to include adaptation plans; ongoing, planned and recommended for Kenya.

  • LTS was contracted to develop Kenya’s NAP
  • LTS team used best practices risk-based approaches
  • LTS partnered with Acclimatise, a UK based firm specialising in adaptation.
  • LTS Services: £294,173


With an economy heavily reliant on agriculture, Kenya must incorporate climate change into national development plans. A NAP was needed to identify priority adaptation actions with supporting information on context, current status of activities, lead agency to take priority actions forward, stakeholder support required, indicative timeframe, costs (where available) and immediate next steps also provided.


LTS’s approach to developing the NAP included:

  • Documentation of lessons learned and development of a NAP Knowledge Database.
  • Identification of priority adaptation actions that reduce vulnerability and build resilience.
  • Assessment of availability and access to localized climate data (both current and future projections).
  • Risk assessment – identify the level of risk different sectors face.
  • Performance indicators to assess the impacts of adaptation actions that feed into the national monitoring framework.
  • Facilitation of stakeholder consultative sessions to discuss the NAP.

Value and benefits

A clear NAP that provides accurate information on the adaptation levels of Kenya and provides well-defined recommendations for future actions. The NAP solidifies that adaptation is the key priority for Kenya with the goal being “Enhanced resilience towards the attainment of Vision 2030.”

For further information please see the Government of Kenya’s Climate Change Action Plan website here.

The Executive Summary of the National Climate Change Adaptation Plan 2013-2017 is now available for download here.

Development of Forest Investment Strategy

The Government of Ghana was selected as a pilot country for the Forest Investment Programme (FIP) under the Climate Investment Fund and is preparing its forest sector investment strategy for FIP funding. LTS prepared a brief assessment of lessons learned from previous and ongoing projects and programmes in the forest and land use sectors in Ghana for incorporation into the design of the proposed FIP investment; conducted a series of consultative meetings and workshops with key stakeholders activities including, but not limited to, civil society, private sector, local, regional and national government representatives, developmental partners and the FIP Mission in support of the FIP investment strategy preparation activities; and participated in and contributing technically to the preparation of the Ghana FIP Investment Strategy which should cover the following areas:

  • Institutional capacity, forest governance and other information such as: implementation of systems for forest resource monitoring; information management and resource inventory; forest law enforcement; land and tree tenure reform; forest management; building capacities of local communities;
  • Investments for the implementation of Ghana’s REDD+ strategy to result in innovative and replicable transformational approaches to reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation;
  • Investments in forest mitigation measures including forest ecosystem services such as forest conservation; promotion of payments for environmental services to sustain biodiversity and ecosystem services equitable benefit-sharing arrangements; restoration and sustainable management of degraded forests and landscapes; afforestation and reforestation on previously degraded land; restructuring of forest industries and promotion of company and community partnership; forest protection measures; improved land management practices; promotion of forest and chain of custody certification;
  • Investments outside the forest sector necessary to reduce the pressure on forests such as: alternative livelihood and poverty reduction opportunities for forest dependent communities; alternative energy programs; agricultural investments in the context of rationalized land use planning; agricultural intensification including agro-forestry; regularly advising the MDBs (AfDB and the World Bank Group) on progress particularly on issues relating to preparation of the investment strategy with monthly operational reports.
  • Participating in and contribute to the preparation of the Joint Mission Aide Memoire and any other documents and updating the MDBs, on a timely basis, on the progress in the preparation of the FIP Investment Strategy documentation.

Global Climate Change Alliance: Building Capacity and Knowledge on Climate Change Resilient Actions

This project was formulated by the EU Delegation with full participation of NAO, EPA, MoA and MoWE. It aims to contribute towards the construction of a carbon neutral and climate resilient economy through the corresponding socio-economic development program (CRGE). Identification of Services is a key aspect of the project, which focuses on advisory and support functions. The global objective of the project is to contribute to ensuring the effective and efficient preparation for and start up of the “Ethiopia Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA-E): Building the national capacity and knowledge on climate change resilient actions”. The specific objective is to assist the Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) and all concerned parties (namely MoA, MoWE, AFD and GIZ) with all start-up activities related to the project. LTS are providing the following services:

  • Institutional capacity building to ensure that EPA has the institutional capacities to coordinate and mainstream climate change into policy, regulatory and strategic development planning.
  • Developing a knowledge base that allows stakeholders at all levels (national, regional and local) to build resilience to climate change impacts.
  • Field testing climate change activities in the context of CRGE successfully in the areas of the Sustainable Land Management (SLM) program of the MoA.

Timber Tracking System

The timber tracking system is a component of the Voluntary Partnership Agreements developed by the European Union. It is set up to monitor harvested timber from origin (physical location of operations) to destination (port of export or processing plant) and also from destination to origin.

LTS was contracted by SGS Cameroon who implemented an EC funded project with the overall objective to study the needs and conditions for the implementation of the Timber Traceability System Cameroon (STBC) in its pilot phase.
Specific objectives were:

  • to review and validate standard operating procedures (SOP) system for the pilot phase with key project stakeholders;
  • to ensure and assure the compliance of systems and processes with the Cameroonian legal and regulatory framework as put into practice and prevailing for the pilot phase and, subsequently, in the context of SVL/LAS and FLEGT VPA;
  • to prepare for system tests at the pilot sites by performing an inventory on the ground in order to collect essential information and assess needs and conditions for the implementation of the pilot, including the acquisition of technical equipment for deployment and implementation of pilot activities to support requirements (training, communication, etc.);
  • to carry out field missions with teams of the MINFOF to the pilot sites for logging, processing plants, regional offices and departments and checkpoints;
  • to perform a gap analysis for the implementation of the tracking system
  • to facilitate the estimation of additional cost estimates and preparation of technical and financial proposals to insert the test of legality under the VPA SVL during the pilot phase
  • to ensure permanent liaison with the Department of Forests / MINFOF during the mission.

LTS provided the following services:

  • research and literature review;
  • review and validation of standard operating procedures (SOP) in collaboration with MINFOF, operators of the sector and other stakeholders;
  • study of the institutional MINFOF and its decentralized services [as far as possible not only in the pilot area];
  • study of forest control system [as far as possible not only in the pilot area];
    study of the stakeholders in the implementation of pilot system [as far as possible not only in the pilot area];
  • definition of legality tests to perform in accordance with the VPA SVL;
  • proposal to insert those tests during the pilot phase.

The outputs were:

  • a full mission report, including a list of documents collected as part of the mission, and contact list of people met
  • a report prepared in collaboration with MINFOF for field missions
  • the results of studies reviewed and validated by the SOPs
  • a financial proposal and timetable for implementing the tests of legality in the pilot area (submitted by the Consortium).

Review and Finalisation of the Nut Sector Value Chain Development Strategy

Strengthening value chains for forest products can enable rural communities to engage better in markets, increase their incomes and therefore make choices about their own sustainable development. In this project, LTS provided expert input on the SNV VCD approach and experience to further develop the nut crops Value Chain Development Strategy to promote sustainable local economic development through the project Strengthening Sustainable Communal Forestry. LTS reviewed existing experience and documentation; met with SNV advisers, partners, clients and VC actors (including visits to Diber, Kukes, Shkoder and Korca); conducted multi-stakeholder workshop on SNV VCD approach and action planning based on existing experience and learning on a practical basis; worked with SNV advisers and LCBs to finalise the Nut sector strategy document with a clear results framework as well as a work plan of detailed activities that could be subsequently followed by both advisers and LCBs. LTS adopted a value chain analysis approach and particular attention was paid to VC mapping; VC management issues; G4E & gender analysis; and Women’s Economic Empowerment (WEE) with reference to Sida policy documents and approach.

Kagera River Basin: Feasibility Study for an Integrated Watershed Management Programme

The Kagera basin covers approximately 60,000 square km covering portions of the four countries of Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda with an estimated to have a population of nearly 15 million people. The Kagera basin experiences degradation of its water resources quantity and quality as a result of inter alia over-abstraction of surface water in some regions; unsustainable land use management practices; soil erosion; encroachment on river riparian lands and wetlands; increased sediment loads and siltation of water courses. The project objective was to establish a sustainable framework for the joint management through the Nile Equatorial Lakes Subsidiary Action Program (NELSAP) of water resources of the Kagera river basin and prepare for sustainable development oriented investments, in order to improve the living conditions of the people and to protect the environment. The Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) received financing through the World Bank Nile Basin Trust Fund and part of the proceeds are devoted to promote investment opportunities in the Kagera River Basin. The feasibility study for an Integrated Watershed Management Program for the Kagera Basin will contribute to addressing catchment degradation issues and optimal and sustainable integrated use of natural resources of the watersheds.

The Kagera Trans-boundary Integrated Water Resource Management and Development Project designed by LTS is a five year investment programme built upon 25 subprojects together with support packages covering programme management, coordination, capacity building and policy development. The total financial cost of the KIWMP over five years is US$ 614.72 million.

Safeguarding REDD+: Towards Robust, Efficient and Transparent Financial Governance

In 2011, Global Witness contracted LTS to undertake a study titled “Safeguarding REDD+: Working Towards Robust, Efficient & Transparent Financial Governance”. LTS identified the main risks in REDD financial flows (from both public and private sources) from international to local level, and proposed appropriate financial audit mechanisms and safeguards to mitigate these risks. We then reviewed existing funding mechanisms, assessed the various risks (misrepresentation, misappropriation, inefficiencies), and proposed various checks and oversight mechanisms based on international audit and public finance best practice. The report can be found here.

Monitoring and Evaluation within Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation

The ESPA programme aims to deliver high-quality, cutting-edge research that will improve understanding of the way ecosystems function, the services they provide and their relationship with the political economy and sustainable growth. ESPA is a 7-year, GBP 40 million interdisciplinary research programme funded by the DFID, the NERC and the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC), as part of the UK’s Living with Environmental Change partnership.

LTS was contracted to provide monitoring and evaluation (M&E) services within the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) programme. This assignment was centred around the need for ESPA to operate an integrated and effective reporting and monitoring system, which satisfied the differential reporting needs of the three ESPA funders, while being parsimonious in the burden it placed on projects and the Directorate. There were a number of aspects to designing this system and there were four primary objectives for this assignment which may be summarised as follows:

  • Develop Key Performance Indicators (KPI) for the ESPA Directorate
  • Recommend rationalised reporting and indicators across the three ESPA funding agencies
  • Recommend a unified and utilitarian reporting system, and
  • Produce a revised ESPA logframe.

Within DFID’s Research Uptake Team (RUT), there was a mandatory requirement for all projects to elaborate their Theory of Change. LTS team member Isobel Vogel, who was working in DFID RUT, brought this experience of developing Theories of Change. Developing a Theory of Change helped ensure a common base for the logframe and logchart, as well as making explicit the programming assumptions underlying ESPA. LTS outlined a Theory from our reading of programme documents, and then interrogated and revised this interactively with the prime ESPA stakeholders. From a Theory of Change, LTS reviewed and modified the vertical logic / objective hierarchy of the logframe. Likewise, LTS recognised that ESPA operates from two parallel results frameworks, the other being NERC’s LogChart, and worked on both frameworks in parallel.