|The Upper Guinea High Forest in the West African countries of Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast and Ghana represents a diversity of ecosystems made up of savannas, semi-deciduous tropical forests and tropical rain forests. Loss of forest cover and degradation of forested land continues at a rapid pace. The West African Forest Strategy (WAFS) formulation process required an assessment of the sector to provide the World Bank with strategic direction aimed at creating a sustainable and productive forestry sector that fuels growth. The WAFS contributed to the fine tuning of a wider African Forestry Strategy and assisted the World Bank in consolidating its support to forestry in the region and aimed to provide a more systematic engagement on forestry issues at a regional level. LTS undertook a forest sector analysis using a gap model framework, a policy options analysis and developed the strategy and financing instruments. Please click here to read the report.|
In 1999, at the outset of forest sector reforms in Uganda where LTS played an instrumental role, the Sawlog Production Grant Scheme (SPGS) was designed to assist in the creation of a national saw-timber plantation resource through encouraging investment by the private sector. Since 2002, the SPGS has provided financial incentives for growers as well as supported people with professional, technical support to establish a commercially viable plantation resource. Over 10,000 hectares have been established and in November 2009 SPGS II received funding to plant an additional 26,000 hectares over the next three years. Since 1992, LTS has directly supported the SPGS on a variety of technical and financial matters and provided support at a strategic level to the SPGS II through the Technical Committee which advised on the following areas: general planning, silviculture and harvesting; private sector investment and forest industries; forest policy and institutional capacity building with emphasis on promoting private sector; and applied commercial forestry research.
Uganda’s forest sector has undergone several reviews and transformations to meet the changing circumstances and the needs of the sector. The last of such policy and institutional reforms were carried out with support from LTS during 1998-2004 and resulted in a National Forest Plan, National Forest Policy, National Forestry and Tree Planting Act, and the establishment of the Forestry Sector Support Department, National Forestry Authority and District Forest Services. Despite these reforms, the forest sector still faced several challenges which affected the attainment of the sector vision, goal and objectives as outlined in these policy instruments and macro-economic plans. LTS supported the Ugandan Ministry of Water and Environment by undertaking a forward looking review of the forest sector and identified gaps, overlaps, shortfalls in performance, and the necessary coordination and institutional adjustments required to address these issues.
DFID Tanzania piloted the new Strategic Programme Review (SPR) process announced in the White Paper 4 as a means to integrating climate change into planning and programme delivery at country level. The DFID Climate and Environment Group viewed the SPRs as feeding into wider organisational learning and was keen to ensure lesson learning across countries and regions, but proposied that the SPR process be led by the country offices and in this case DFID Tanzania. DFID Tanzania presented a unique challenge and interesting pilot as it was DFID’s third largest programme, with a commitment of Â£103 million in the year of the project. LTS supported the SPR in order to clarify what climate change meant to Tanzania, to increase awareness of the significance and implications of climate change andÂ to inform strategic decisions about DFIDs sectoral balance. The SPR team conducted policy and institutional assessments, climate risk screening, developed strategies for mainstreaming climate change and completed a drivers for change study.
The challenges imposed by a changing climate in Africa, in particular the requirements for adaptation are significant. Adequate funding and technological assistance to support adaptation are required, possibly under a legally binding framework. However, there are many outstanding questions concerning for example the key vulnerabilities and priorities for support, the scale of funding required, and the best ways of administering support and the optimum design of effective, accountable and transparent ‘adaptation governance’. In order to support demands for adaptation finance and goal-oriented administration of such funds, Heinrich BÃ¶ll Foundation Nairobi commissioned LTS to undertake country case studies in Uganda and Tanzania. The overall aim was to evaluate the state of preparedness for climate change adaptation in these countries through a policy, legal, institutional and technical analysis.
Mama Misitu is an advocacy and communications campaign to improve governance of forests. It launched a pilot phase in 2008 and a full five year programme was subsequently proposed. The pilot programme responded to the need for outreach and advocacy to reduce illegal logging and increase revenue collection, and in particular, to increase community participation in forest management. The campaign, managed by the Tanzania Natural Resources Forum, encouraged people to address the challenges which contribute to the continuing exploitation of the nation’s indigenous timber resources and the loss of large amounts of Tanzania’s natural wealth. The campaign directly complements and is complemented by other initiatives, such as participatory forest management, the development of REDD+ initiatives and institutional reform and strengthening within the forest sector. LTS was contracted to conduct an independent appraisal of the “Mama Misitu: Addressing Forest Governance in Tanzania” project document submitted by the TNRForum to the Embassies of Finland and Norway for funding.
Rwanda is undergoing change as a consequence of environmental change, population growth and structural transformations in the agriculture / rural sector. Recent analysis on the impact of climate change on rural livelihood and agriculture in Rwanda shows that there is a high level of uncertainty about potential change effects; and this will depend on a range of natural factors and their interplay with a complex range of social, economic and institutional factors. The overall adaptation strategy in agriculture was to develop a resilient and diversified rural economy. CARE Rwanda, with support from CARE Austria, requested LTS to guide programmatic thinking on climate change adaptation. The assignment focused on a region in northern Rwanda to provide tangible and actionable recommendations related to farming systems across the volcanic soils of the Virunga volcanoes, Northern and Western provinces.
Mauritius has a diversified economy which relies on efficiently managed water resources and the growing scarcity of water resources calls for revisiting the existing riparian system of water rights. The project will prepare a Water Master Plan that serves as a road map for the further development of Mauritius water to help government achieve its objective to provide reliable potable water supply on a 24 hour basis all year round. LTS will support the component for the Rationalization of Water Rights and institutional arrangements within the water sector through the provision of a detailed review and analysis of existing water legislation and the development of legal frameworks for water allocation mechanisms. An assessment of the feasibility of implementing a licensing system for water allocation will be provided along with proposals for sharing of river flow.
The specific research goal was to establish the best means of combining remote sensing with community-based management to support sustainable forest use in Malawi. In Malawi it is the small rural communities that have the most impact on forest use, but they are the least likely to be able to benefit from recent technologies such as satellite-based remote sensing. Simple data produced as maps could be used at the community level to help forest management, but this may not be the most appropriate kind of data. There are newer, more advanced satellites and aircraft that can measure detailed properties of a forest — are these data more applicable? And what kind of scale and frequency are measurements needed? These are the questions that need to be urgently addressed if Malawi is to implement an effective strategy for sustainable forest use. The focus of this project was to establish what data is most “fit for purpose” for both national inventory to be conducted by the Forestry Department, but also at the community level. The intention was to make a real improvement on the way in which the forests are managed and used in Malawi.
Being the single most important water catchment in Malawi, the Shire Basin (inclusive of Lake Malawi) is a natural asset of national importance. Through a range of ecological services the Shire Basin supports key economic sectors in Malawi and further downstream, including food production, transport, energy, tourism, agriculture, fisheries and industries. In order to maintain the vital role of the Shire Basin in contributing to the health and prosperity of Malawi, the Government of Malawi and cooperating partners decided to develop a long-term Environment and Natural Resources Management Action Plan (ENRMAP) which provides a sustainable solution to managing the basin and upper catchments. LTS prepared a comprehensive ENRMAP for the Malombe East and Malombe West catchments based on an integrated ecosystem services approach that considered the social, economic, and environmental dimensions of land use and resource management problems in the Upper Shire with the primary objective of identifying and prioritising specific interventions to promote more sustainable land use practices.