Implementing a Risk-based Approach Towards Environmental Management

The mandate of this initiative was twofold: to support the Kenyan National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) to develop a risk based environmental policy and regulatory framework for delivering the new Environment Management Coordination Act; and to engage partners in government, industry and civil society in delivering environmental improvements. LTS conducted an independent review of the programme to evaluate its impacts and sustainability. Our staff carried out a stakeholder analysis based on detailed personal testimonies of programme and NEMA staff, participant observation, field visits and questionnaire surveys. The actions we recommended included: the development of environmental planning and influencing tools, enhanced regulatory capacity through the adoption of a risk based approach and a business planning model for national incident management.

Policy Options for Strengthening the Management of Miombo Woodlands to Meet Household Needs in Southern Africa

The project contributed to the World bank project, Policies and incentives for improving the management of miombo woodlands to meet household needs in Southern Africa. The project outputs were for World Bank ARD and ENV staff working on the design and development of forestry interventions which incorporate elements of dry woodland management, as well as PREM staff who are engaged in the development of social, economic and policy instruments focused on poverty reduction, both through PRSPs and CASs and through Development Policy Lending instruments. This project provided a framework for an improved understanding of the linkage between rural livelihoods and miombo woodlands and was intended to inform the development of social and economic policies which have poverty alleviation as their primary objective. The overall project focused specifically on three themes: social and economic characteristics of miombo use and the role of miombo in income and consumption amongst poor rural households; how miombo woodlands can be better managed in a way which is consistent with meeting rural subsistence demands for tree products; and on social and economic policies which can strengthen their contribution to reducing risk and vulnerability of poor rural households through sustainable forest management. LTS provided an experienced staff member to author the paper on Policy options for strengthening dry woodland management in a way which contributes to their role in reducing risk and vulnerability and which enhances their contribution to household welfare. LTS undertook the background research and prepared a draft paper which was presented at a CIFOR meeting in November 2007, before completion of the draft in December 2007. The paper reviewed policy measures for improving the access, use and management of miombo woodland products by poor people. The paper developed themes which are emerging in the literature about the relationship between woodland management and the poor, including those related to common property resource use.

Review of Microfinance Initiatives in Protected Area and Environmental Contexts in East Africa

As part of a multi-county lesson learning exercise, LTS was contracted to review six microfinance schemes established over the past eight years in the context of protected areas and ecosystem conservation projects with the objective of assessing their performance against environmental, social and financial criteria. LTS identified the need for, and designed a review of, selected savings and loan schemes that had been established in the context of protected area or natural resource management projects. LTS worked in partnership with WWF and CARE Tanzania to secure the funding and personnel to carry out the review. Using participatory social approaches to evaluate schemes, LTS led the field review of six project sites. LTS examined the short and long-term financial viability of the schemes, their environmental sustainability and socio-cultural acceptability. The results and lessons were compiled analysed and presented for consideration by the LTS, WWF and CARE partnership.

Institutional Support to Forest Sector Reform

The Miti Mingi Maisha Bora Programme (Inception Phase, 2007-2009) was the main instrument supporting the forest sector reform process in Kenya. The overall objective of the programme was increased contribution of forests to economic recovery and poverty alleviation on environmentally and socially sustainable basis. The reform process is at a critical juncture. KFS was positioning as a centre of excellence with regional structures starting to emerge; a new Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife was established; a 10 year logging ban nearly removed; and political commitment on forestry in the Mau Forest reached very high levels. The Forestry Transaction Advisor (FTA) supported the institutional change process since 2007. This input followed on from the design work undertaken in 2008 for the MMMB 5-year programme (Implementation Phase, 2009-2014). The FTA assiste with operational procedures for Forest Conservation Committees; the development of the Board position on the conservation of the Mau Forest Complex; preparation of timber licencing pre-qualification and bidding procedures; strategic planning support to the Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife; and general support to the Board.

Forest Rehabilitation and Environmental Management Strengthening Programme

The USAID-funded FORREMS (2003-2008) and the World Bank-funded NRMP (2007-2013) aimed to strengthen government natural resource management institutions, assists local community groups in improving forest and environmental management, aid the rehabilitation of degraded rangelands and improves rural livelihoods with sustainable nature-based enterprises. FORREMS and NRMP worked with the Forest Department and Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife in improving the enabling framework for sustainable forest management by advancing reforms in Forest Act and Kenya Forest Service (KFS) – a state corporation that will replace the Forest Department in 2007. The Forestry Transaction Advisor acted as an advisor to the Permanent Secretary, De-Linking Committee, Forest Reform Secretariat and KFS Board on the transition of FD to the KFS. In this regard, the advisor brought to KFS expertise in public sector reform such as strategic planning, corporate governance, organisational structuring, budget and finance, human resources management, recruitment and performance contracting.

A Study for the Establishment of a Multiple Use Marine Park

LTS was contracted to take a lead in this study. Specific tasks included reviewing the relevant documents, convening a stakeholders workshop to provide local technical input and ensuring stakeholder support and determining, in consultation with major stakeholders and the wider community, the location and extent of the site or sites for establishment of a sustainable, multiple use marine protected area. LTS also conducted a survey to identify the boundaries, zones, potential boundary marker sites, potential dive sites, and generalised surveys to record species richness and diversity within the area of the proposed Marine Protected Area; this provided a proposed monitoring methodology, tested at several sites. LTS staff also prepared a comprehensive sustainable multiple-use marine park management plan for use by the Government of Montserrat, which accommodates within appropriate management regimes a broad spectrum of human activities compatible with the primary goal of a marine protected area.

Best Practice Guidelines – Sacred Natural Sites: Guidelines for Protected Area Managers

The IUCN Best Practice Protected Area Management Guidelines are recognised at the definitive work on protected area management, offering advice based on syntheses of worldwide experience by a team of international experts, and subject to a rigorous peer review. LTS was the lead editor and provided management services to the drafting of IUCN-UNESCO Best Practice Guidelines – Sacred Natural Sites: Guidelines for Protected Area Managers. This included reviewing tasks of all editors, developing a work-plan, liaising with World Congress on Protected Areas Best Practice Series editor and the IUCN publications unit., supporting the facilitation of a consultation process with key stakeholders, especially indigenous custodians of sacred sites. It also included a literature review and the development of case studies for inclusion in the guidelines. The final product was a print ready text with the inclusion of graphic materials. The role also included the raising of supplementary funds for the guidelines.

The ‘WATERMARK’ – Developing Accredited Standards for Sustainable Water Use

LTS, working with NGOs and partners in the private sector, led the design and development of an international standard for sustainable water resource use. This product-based accreditation scheme aimed to harness the growing power of ethical consumerism and Corporate Social Responsibility to drive sustainable water resource use. LTS’ involvement included research and development, networking and assembling project partners and in the future the piloting of the scheme in East Africa. As part of this process, LTS provided strategic support and guidance in the launch of Water Witness International, a new international NGO dedicated to improved performance and accountability in water resource management.

Regional Climate Change Programme

Southern Africa is particularly vulnerable to climate related challenges. As part of an ongoing effort to help minimize the risks associated with climate change, DFID has been supporting adaptation efforts in the region. In 2007/08 LTS, together with our regional partner OneWorld, conducted a 5-country feasibility study to clarify the role DFID should play to help southern Africa respond to the challenge of climate change. LTS identified key risks and vulnerabilities in the region, reviewed the anticipated impacts climate change and determined at what resolution biophysical information is needed to inform a) a robust regional programme and b) allow for effective monitoring of climate change progress and effectiveness of responses. It also concluded that a Regional Climate Change programme (RCCP) for Southern Africa (SADC region) could enhance adaptation to climate change, thus contributing towards poverty reduction. Subsequently, DFID approved funding a RCCP designed “to enable transboundary adaptation to climate change, with equitable access to climate funding, in southern Africa”. This programme, with funds managed by OneWorld and technical assistance supported by LTS and a number of South African Partners, was designed to promote capacity building and advisory support to the SADC region, as well as promoting stakeholder engagement, public awareness and lesson learning.