Mahale Ecosystem Management Project – Monitoring and Evaluation Plan

The Mahale ecosystem bordering Lake Tanganyika is globally important for its tropical forest biodiversity, as well as for supporting the local livelihoods. In recent years, there has been major disturbance to these communities and large refugee in-migration from regional conflicts. This upheaval has increased poverty and severely impacted on the ecosystem’s natural resource base. LTS was contracted to lead the design and development of the monitoring and evaluation plan for the Mahale Ecosystem Management Project which was co-financed by the European Commission and implemented by Frankfurt Zoological Society in partnership with Tanzania National Parks. LTS trained project staff in logical framework based monitoring and evaluation, and facilitated the development of a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project. The task was also expanded to assist the project team to develop a similar monitoring and evaluation plan for the Mahale Mountains National Park Management Plan.

Forestry Policy and Strategy Development

Southern Sudan has a diverse and extensive forestry resource base. After more than 20 years of civil war, this has become degraded and the government is rebuilding its structures from effectively a zero base. Following the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, the situation in Southern Sudan has been in a state of considerable flux. In 2006, LTS was hired by the US Department of Agriculture to assist the new Southern Sudanese Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in developing a forestry policy and strategy. Relevant policy statements for the presidential address given at the first Southern Sudan parliament were elaborated based on an analysis of a strategic review of the strengths and limitations of the forestry sector and proposed programme of critical interventions. An overall strategy was suggested followed by more detailed treatment of commercial scale plantations and forest industries, natural forests and woodlands and trees in support of agriculture.

Certification in the Natural Products Sector and Feasibility of Interventions

Under the umbrella of the recently launched Natural Futures Programme, the World Conservation Union in South Africa (IUCN-SA) and partner PhytoTrade Africa asked LTS and its partners to investigate ethical certification schemes and their accessibility to Southern African small and medium enterprises in the natural products sector. Within the (natural products) sector there are clear opportunities for entrepreneurial development and improved livelihoods for many poor rural communities. LTS took part in a technical team to review existing schemes and assess their appropriateness in a Southern African natural products context, identify associated barriers and opportunities and recommend intervention strategies to improve the accessibility and applicability of certification in this sector. The study informed the Natural Futures programme in the development / adaptation of a new or existing certification system for the benefit of natural product small and medium enterprises and the sector.

Implementing Africa’s Science and Technology Consolidated Plan of Action

DFID supported the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) Office of Science and Technology to support the design of institutional arrangements and strengthening of capacity for implementing ‘Africa’s Science and Technology Consolidated Plan of Action’. In early August 2005, the Bureau of the African Ministerial Council on Science and Technology instructed NEPAD Office of Science and Technology to start preparing background studies and initiate processes to guide and ensure speedy implementation of the Plan. LTS, in collaboration with the University of Edinburgh, supported the process through a short-term advisor based in Pretoria responsible for preparing two high-level policy papers on instruments and institutions for financing research and development based on global trends in Asia and conducting an international survey of donors funding science and technology in developing countries.

Serengeti-North Luangwa Ecosystem Project

The Serengeti-North Luangwa Ecosystem Management Project was a 5-year integrated conservation, development and landscape management initiative jointly implemented and financed by the Frankfurt Zoological Society and the European Commission. Project activities focused on the practical application of the Approach’s five operational guidelines: establishing inter-sectoral ecosystem cooperation mechanisms; improving understanding of ecosystem processes and functions; decentralising management to local institutions; improving benefits and incentives for local stakeholders; and introducing adaptive management systems. LTS provided process support to the project in terms of technical direction, strategic and operational planning, and monitoring and evaluation. The action helped strengthen policy and practice, building a central role for local communities in ecosystem management and, ultimately, helping ensure that key African ecosystems provide lasting conservation and livelihood benefits.

Development and Institutionalization of a National Forest Programme Monitoring Facility and Database

Tanzania’s National Forest Programme (NFP) represents a long-term strategic plan for the implementation of the Forestry Policy and Forestry Act. It is cross sectoral in scope and covers a range of activities, being implemented by players within national government, local government, local communities, civil society and the private sector. During 2006-2007, LTS supported the Forestry and Beekeeping Division and Tanzania Forest Management and Conservation Project financed by the World Bank to develop a phased approach to the development of an information system to support the NFP. The primary objective of this assignment was to design, develop, establish, and institutionalize a functioning forest monitoring facility and database that drew on information generated at different levels, and from different sectors, including local government. The forest information system took into account current information needs and future foreseen needs and integration with other national systems, and global forest information systems.

Access Project – Environmental Assessment and Management Support Consultancy

The volcanic island of St Helena rises from the South Atlantic Ocean some 1,200 miles from the coast of Africa. The development of an airport was considered. Following feasibility studies, DFID recruited LTS in association with Faber Maunsell to undertake an Environmental Impact Assessment of the proposals and to produce an Environmental Assessment Report. In addition, LTS also prepared an Environmental Management Plan and Public Consultation and Disclosure Plan in advance of the appointment of a Design, Build and Operate contractor. These documents informed the tendering process for the operator and provided a basis for the design, construction and operation of the airport in manner that ensures that the highest possible standards of environmental management are met.

Development Potential of Chainsaw Logging and Milling and Associated Decision Guide

This was a research project designed to clarify the conversion efficiency of chainsaw log conversion, the flow of costs and benefits that arise and the potential for improving skills and lowering impacts through application of modified reduced logging techniques. The starting point was a comprehensive strategic review of chainsaw conversion, from which the experimental protocols for the field studies were developed. The results from the marketing, conversion and socio-economic studies when combined with the questionnaire outcomes provided the basis for the decision support system. This provides guidance at policy, planning and practitioner levels on how to identify situations where chainsaw conversion could be appropriate and on the conditions, support and control systems that may be required. The project held a regional workshop in Guyana jointly with FAO Regional Forestry Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean.

Improved Forest Management for Sustainable Livelihoods Programme

Malawi’s overarching policy document is the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy (MGDS), a second generation PRSP which was adopted in 2006 for the period 2006-11, it sought to transform Malawi from a predominately importing and consuming country to a producing and exporting nation€. A number of high quality policy documents exist at sectoral level; these include the Forest Policy 1996 and the Forestry Act 1997. Both documents mark a shift from a protectionist approach towards a participatory management approach that gives communities greater rights and responsibilities in forest management. IFMSLP was a national-level sector programme towards upscaling decentralised forestry governance from a few selected district to a national action through building capacity of district-level service delivery, and promoting multi-stakeholder involvement in the management of forest areas. The IFMSLP has 5 Result Areas with concomitant activities with a broad remit to improve governance of the forestry sector. The programme objective was “to improve the livelihoods of forest dependent communities through improved sustainable collaborative management of forests both in forest reserves and customary land.” In achieving this objective, IFMSLP was explicit about being people-centred in its approach to sustainable development through recognising their needs, priorities and desired outcomes. LTS also implemented the predecessor to IFMSLP, Social Forestry and Extension Training Project (1997 – 2003) funded by the EC. Details of this project are not included in this project reference.

Protected Areas Development Programme: Phase II


The prime objective of the Protected Areas Development Programme (Phase II) was to enhance the conservation of biodiversity heritage in Ankasa and Bia Conservation Areas, as well as the Krokosua Hill Forest Reserve which is a designated Globally Significant Biodiversity Area.

PADP II consolidated and extend the on- and off-reserve achievements of its predecessor (PADP I), in particular securing long-term management prospects for the focal protected areas. This was achieved mainly through further improving the conservation and management capacity of the Wildlife Division of the Ghana Forestry Commission, and by complementing park infrastructures for administration and tourism. Off-reserve conservation centred on expansion of the participatory concepts developed during the first phase to a wider surrounding area. Programme support for eco-tourism development and income generating activities contributed to reduced poverty in adjacent rural communities.

Phase II was primarily an institutional strengthening intervention, with emphasis on building the capacity of existing local institutions and personnel, and enhancing the effectiveness of existing infrastructure. The approach involved the project playing a catalytic role to enable the Wildlife Division and other sectoral stakeholders to build sustainable management capacity, rather than simply providing a vehicle for implementing activities.