Evaluation of Denmark’s Climate Change Funding for Developing Countries

Danish International climate change funding supports Denmark’s contribution to Fast Start Finance initially after the non-binding agreement at the UNFCCC COP15. Denmark also provides additional financing for mitigation and adaptation to climate change in developing countries. From 2008 to 2012 the Danish commitment has been about 1.5 billion DKK and a similar amount is expected to be committed from 2013 to 2015.

The team will conduct an independent evaluation of the Danish climate change funding to developing countries. The evaluation shall provide evidence of the outcomes of the climate change funding for forthcoming international policy dialogue on climate change and provide evidence for design and implementation of any future Danish support to climate change finance in developing countries, including addressing climate change in future Danida supported country programmes.

LTS is providing the following services:

  • Development of a Theory Based Evaluation Design
  • Development of the portfolio level theory of change and some intervention level theories of change
  • Development of Evaluation Framework, including Key Evaluation Questions and Indicators, in line with the OECD/DAC criteria
  • Development of Survey Instruments (Project Documentation Review Guide and Review Template; Semi-structured Interview Guide)
  • Leading field work in Kenya, Denmark and Vietnam
  • Responsibility for Analysis and synthesis across all the contributing studies (up to 6 contributing studies) and development of the final synthesis report
  • Presentation of the report conclusions and recommendations in Copenhagen
  • Coordination and management of a complex evaluation, including international team all working in separate locations

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Program for Eastern Indonesia SME Assistance (PENSA 2) End of Facility Review

The PENSA 2 end-of-term review included activities undertaken by IFC-PENSA from July 2008 to December 2012. The review took place on two levels: i) a performance evaluation of the IFC-PENSA II program as a vehicle for delivering advisory services; and ii) programme evaluations centred on strategic themes of interest.

The review ensured accountability of IFC-PENSA towards donors and stakeholder and provided lessons learnt that will generate actionable recommendations. For the performance evaluation of IFC-PENSA 2, LTS and OPM made use of access to PENSA documentation, individual project Implementation Plans, Supervision Reports and Completion Reports, IEG evaluation notes and the yearly Client Surveys. The end-of-term review of IFC-PENSA 2 also draws on the mid-term and end-term reviews of IFC-PENSA 1, other evaluations, surveys and materials of active and closed projects, and relevant data sources.

The main method of investigation was a desk review supplemented by meetings with selected former and current IFC and World Bank staff, donors, project counterparts and other stakeholders. More in-depth analysis obtained from the program evaluations was also included in the review.

LTS has provided the Team Leader for this assignment who oversaw the assessment of the performance of PENSA 2 and the assessment of the performance of selected projects based their relevance; effectiveness; efficiency; impact; sustainability; additionality; and their consideration of cross-cutting issues. In addition to overseeing all technical aspects of assignment; the LTS Team Leader supervised field work; lead the sustainable forestry component evaluation; gave presentations to the client; and contributed to all deliverables.

Achieving Triple Wins: Identifying Climate Smart Investment Strategies for the Coastal Zone

Climate change is affecting developing countries and in most littoral states it is altering the structure and function of coastal areas. In this context national policy makers have to make choices about which development, adaptation and mitigation activities to prioritise and pursue to ensure that impacts and losses are minimised. Despite a need for clarity on the most and least desirable development strategies in the coastal zone, much of the literature on adaptation and mitigation in developing countries has ignored the opportunities and challenges of delivery in coastal areas.

LTS was part of an international team of researchers that were seeking to present the potential co-benefits (and possible damages) from actions that deliver adaptation and mitigation through detailed case studies, supported by a set of policy briefs for national coastal managers, in order to establish an outline proposal for funds to develop an investment planning toolkit. Our focus was on tropical coastal areas in developing countries, particularly those at risk from sea level rise and changes in tropical cyclone intensity. LTS was leading the Kenyan case study for this research, focusing on extractive forestry as a sector with potential to support both adaptation and mitigation of climate change. Our partners in this project were Southampton University, WWF Caribbean, University of Ghana and the Government of Vietnam.

Evaluation of the Sustainability Dimension in Addressing Poverty Reduction

Poverty reduction was an overarching goal of the Finnish development cooperation strategy since 1993 through to the current Development Policy of 2007. The purpose of the evaluation was to identify concrete results and achievements in the Finnish development cooperation, with particular reference to the sustainable development approach. LTS undertook a desk study which was followed by field work in the following countries: Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia, Vietnam, Laos, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia.

The study investigated the poverty reduction outcomes that have taken place in relation to the application of the sustainability concept at a macro level in Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) partner countries; assessed the extent to which MFA interventions since 2000 have made a contribution to these changes through co-operation on forestry and biological resources; drew out lessons from past experiences and thinking, in particular looking for best practice, constraints and innovations; and consequently; identified how MFA interventions could achieve greater impact. The evaluation was guided by the OECD/DAC norms and quality standards for development evaluation.

Evaluation of Closed Darwin Initiative Projects Located in Vietnam

This evaluated of closed projects in Vietnam evaluated five projects. Some of the projects seemed to have been ‘good starts’ that could easily and usefully be built on. Local partners had reflected thoroughly on the projects, learning from both what worked well during the project but also what did not work well to come up with new project ideas in 3 of the 5 projects evaluated. Exploring subsequent support of these project ideas (that are grounded in experience) may be worthwhile. Many of the local partners felt that working with local villagers and changing project strategies to be responsive to local ideas was more effective than trying to change local people to fit project strategies. In line with this there was a recommendation from several local partners that it would be very beneficial for the projects in terms of their cost-effectiveness and impact if Darwin could develop a mechanism to ensure local people as well as other local partners can input into project design, e.g. pre-project funding could have a broader scope to include funding for local level multi-stakeholder project design workshops.

Output to Purpose Review of the Northern Mountains Poverty Reduction Project

The Northern Mountains Poverty Reduction Project (NMPRP) was co-financed by the World Bank and DFID to the value of USD132.5 million and aimed to benefit about 1 million rural poor, 85% of whom are ethnic minorities in six provinces of Vietnam. The project provides basic rural infrastructure and other demand led investments including basic education, health and agricultural extension services and facilities. LTS undertook a review and consultation with key stakeholders, and village interviews to assess the initial performance of the programme against the criteria set out in the project documents and logical framework; role of the programme within the broader poverty reductions efforts of the provinces, central government and other donors; and analysis of the relationships between key stakeholders in the project and the impact that they have had on the success of the project.

Forest Governance Learning Group

Forestry can contribute to the eradication of poverty and sustainability, but only with good forest governance. As a key founding member of the Forest Governance Learning Group (FGLG) LTS continues to focus its efforts on improving national forest programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa (Cameroon, Ghana, Mali, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda) and Asia (India, Indonesia and Vietnam), linking forestry’s contribution in poverty reduction strategies, tackling the effects on livelihoods of illegal logging and corruption in forestry, and ensuring sustainability and equity in forest privatisation and decentralisation. LTS has contributed to the FGLG process through overseeing new policy research conducted on illegal/corrupt forestry and poor people, facilitation of learning between countries promoted in two regions – West and Southern Africa, and developing specific practical governance guidance materials and tools.

Country Strategy Paper Review

LTS provided high-level governance support to the regional DFID field office in Thailand. The whole team assessed progress against the Logframe and progress against the priorities and expectations of the Government of Vietnam (GoV). Further, the level of uptake of innovative ideas and Lessons Learnt from DFID interventions within other donor funded programmes and GoV development planning provided insights to what extent DFID influenced the mind set at national level. Generic governance issues were captured through thematic case studies.

Evaluation of Finnish Forestry Sector Development Cooperation

LTS fielded a team of 11 national and international consultants to evaluate Finnish forestry development assistance from 1990 to 2002. The aim was to focus on the programme as a whole using individual country programmes as sources of information. The target countries were Kenya, Namibia, Tanzania and the SADC Colleges programme in Africa: Laos, Nepal, Thailand and Vietnam in Asia and Mexico. Overall the findings were of high quality technical projects and good professional staff but a tendency to operate in isolation from wider issues. As a consequence, the wider impact was limited. There were several development policy changes applied by Finland during the period reviewed. The Team concluded that Finland has an important role to play in forestry development and a number of comparative advantages from its own history and its favourable political system. Nine recommendations were made to improve the focus and strategic delivery of forestry assistance within the current wider development framework.