Independent M&E of the Northern Uganda Transforming the Economy through Climate Smart Agribusiness (NU-TEC)

NU-TEC is a GBP 48 million programme that will provide technical and financial support to agribusinesses operating pro-poor business models in Northern Uganda, with the intention to support small holder farmers in that region. The intended impact of the NU-TEC is the increased income and resilience to climate change of poor smallholders and agricultural labourers in Northern Uganda.

LTS is supporting the programme to establish effective M&E system (theory of change, indicator design and baseline assessments; undertake Annual, Mid-term and Project Completion reviews; maintain oversight and testing of key project assumptions and risks; design and undertake an impact evaluation of the project; and maximise the evidence and learning concerning the successes, unintended consequences and failures of the NU-TEC project. LTS inputs will provide a key mechanism for DFID to monitor project progress in the implementation, the outcome and the impact of the NU-TEC project and will ensure accountability for programme delivery and project funds.

Uganda Green Growth Development Strategy

LTS is providing technical support to the government of Uganda in developing Uganda’s Green Growth Development Strategy (GGDS) on behalf of UNDP. The strategy is intended to address Uganda’s contribution to global climate change and global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by assisting the government, businesses, and others in establishing the key enabling conditions and tools needed to participate in emerging international GHG management frameworks and meet obligations under the Copenhagen Accord, as reaffirmed during the UN climate conference in Cancun in December 2010.

The assignment aims to develop a GGDS to 2030 that responds effectively to Uganda’s development priorities and has the following objectives:

  • Guide national policy and planning in an integrated way;
  • Mainstream climate change in key sectors of the economy; and
  • Position Uganda to access international funding to achieve low-carbon development and green growth.

In collaboration with Ecofys and a wide range of stakeholders, led by the National Planning Authority and Climate Change Department, LTS will develop a GGDS through a participatory process. The scope of work includes:

  1. Baseline: Collect and analyse data integrating sector data and expert views coherently to produce consolidated emissions scenarios for Uganda.
  2. Mitigation options: Identify and prioritize mitigation options, and examine barriers to implementation and policies to overcome these.
  3. 3. Adaptation: Identify adaptation options and specify priorities for taking adaptation measures; furthermore, make adaptation co-benefits one of the criteria to be incorporated in the prioritisation approach of mitigation measures.
  4. Financing: Identify financing needs, analyse domestic and international financing sources, and develop a coherent and actionable financing strategy.
  5. Implementation: Design an implementation plan supported by an effective MRV system, ensuring inter-agency coordination and sustainable stakeholder involvement.

The UGGDS will focus on the period to 2030, examining key mitigation sectors identified in the Uganda National Climate Change Policy and in particular those prioritised under the UNDP LECB initiative, namely: agriculture, energy, transport and waste. The UGGDS will prioritise climate change mitigation measures that contribute to low-carbon development, while also offering co-benefits aligned with Uganda’s development vision. LTS will lead on the analysis and development of the MRV component as well as prioritising mitigation measures based on adaptation co-benefits, identifying adaptation options, and including adaptation measures in the action plan.

Mid-term Review and Planning for the Norwegian-funded Conservation Farming Unit Programme

Norad has provided NOK 302m to support the promotion of conservation agriculture through the Conservation Agriculture Programme (CAP II) in Zambia and Conservation Agriculture Regional Programme (CARP) in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda. These two programmes are managed by the Conservation Farming Unit (CFU) of the Zambian National Farmers Union under a contract with the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

LTS International will design and deliver the mid-term review and provide recommendations to support decision-making with respect to further Norwegian support to the programmes and to conservation agriculture in general. LTS has provided an overall team leader and national consultants in Zambia, Malawi, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.

Nile Story

The objectives of the Nile Story are:

  • To develop new ways to describe the results of the Nile programme in qualitative and quantitative terms at the programme and project levels, including the outcomes and impacts of the support.
  • To convey these results in a variety of communications products targeted at different audiences.

The consultancy researches and conveys the results of the Nile programme enabled by the NBTF, coordinates country and partner support, and packages the findings into a suite of communications materials, informally called the ‘Nile Story’. The work covers the years 1999 through June 2014.

The Nile Story captures systematically the breadth and depth of progress made by the Nile Basin countries on the development track in pursuit of their Shared Vision in both qualitative and quantitative terms.

Building transboundary cooperation is a long term process and Nile cooperation is still in early stages. The Nile story should make reference to some of the challenges experienced and those that that lie ahead. The Nile Story aims to be ‘people centered’, with a focus on what has changed among stakeholders, including changes in attitudes, behaviors, and actions on the ground.

LTS developed a suite of communications products to tell the story of the Nile Basin Initiative over its 15 year history. The products reviewed work already undertaken to capture the progress of the Nile countries, conducted new research and analysis of NBI and national level progress resulting from the Nile programme, and established a framework through which the results of the Nile programme can be conveyed.

The Nile Story publications are available here.

Planning for Resilience in East Africa through Policy, Adaptation, Research, and Economic Development


The PREPARED programme is a five year, multi-organisation, comprehensive programme aimed at mainstreaming integrated, multi-sectoral, evidence-based, climate-resilient development planning and programme implementation into the EAC and its Partner States’ development agendas. The overall goal of PREPARED is to strengthen the resiliency and sustainability of East African economies, transboundary freshwater ecosystems, and communities, targeting three key development challenges that are likewise high priority areas for the US Government.

PREPARED has three integrated objectives:

  • Objective 1: Climate change adaptation technical capacity, policy leadership, and action readiness of regional institutions improved
  • Objective 2: Resilient and sustainable management of biologically significant transboundary freshwater ecosystems in the East African Community region strengthened;
  • Objective 3: Resilient and sustainable water supply, sanitation, and waste water treatment services in the Lake Victoria Basin enhanced

Under Objective 2, LTS Africa is working in concert with other PREPARED partners on activities related to biodiversity conservation.

LTS is leading Component 2 (Biodiversity Conservation) of this project (a $2 million component), using the regional knowledge of LTS Africa and decades of experience in transboundary biodiversity conservation in East Africa to provide targeted support by conducting key ecosystem and biodiversity assessments.

Tracking Adaptation and Measuring Development

During 2012-2013, the Kenya Climate Change Action Plan (KCCAP) was developed and launched by the Government of Kenya. The action plan is designed around climate change adaptation and mitigation interventions supported by climate finance, an enabling regulatory and policy framework, technology, a monitoring reporting and verification plus system (MRV+) and a knowledge and capacity building strategy. The action plan recommends several actions for implementation which will lead to a low carbon climate resilient green economy. The National Performance Benefit Measurement Framework is Kenya’s MRV+ system. It contains both adaptation (M&E) and mitigation indicators (MRV) and was developed by LTS International.

As part of the MRV+ systems design work, LTS applied the Tracking Adaptation and Measuring Development (TAMD) evaluation framework to develop adaptation indicators for national and county level reporting. TAMD takes a dual approach, building a framework that lets countries evaluate how far, and how well, climate risks are managed at international, national and sub-national scales, and use vulnerability and development indicators to assess whether development outcomes bring better local climate resilience, and whether that aggregates at larger scales to produce climate-resilient development. The TAMD methodology describes the development of indicators that reflect vulnerability and institutional (adaptive) capacity, rather than climate impacts or risk. By doing this, actions that focus on the development end of the adaptation continuum are measured, rather than costly technological fixes that may have limited developmental benefits.

TAMD is being piloted by IIED in several countries. Kenya is in the unique position of having a set of national adaptation indicators that have been derived through the application of TAMD. LTS has designed the Kenya TAMD pilot and is now advancing TAMD roll-out at national and sub-national levels. We are addressing a significant gap between the current situation of TAMD and a working adaptation M&E framework.

LTS’s cutting-edge work on TAMD across Africa includes:

  • Formulating a design and appraisal report with agreed on the next steps in the TAMD initiative in Kenya and the options for implementation.
  • Engaging with Kenya’s policy partners – Ministry of Planning and Devolution and the National Drought Management Authority – to mainstream the TAMD approach within macro-sectoral planning.
  • Guiding TAMD pilot operations in Kenya across 5 counties (Isiolo, Wajir, Garissa, Kitui and Makueni) to support adequate institutionalisation of TAMD in County planning departments and Ward committees.
  • Working with community, sub-national and national stakeholders in the development of adaptation M&E frameworks at all levels which consists of developing theories of change for adaptation, indicators, assumptions, collecting and analysing baseline information and developing M&E plans.
  • Assisting in the establishment of the county-national level linkages of institutional adaptive capacity and development indicators and data information flow processes.
  • Advising the Adaptation Consortium under the DFID Strengthening Strengthening Adaptation and Resilience to Climate Change in Kenya Plus (StARK+) on mainstreaming TAMD as a tool within their M&E system.
  • Producing quarterly reports against an agreed set of technical contents and on expenditure and activities; reports of events and liaison with Country and National agencies; a bespoke evaluation framework, blogs and press releases.

In Mozambique, Ethiopia and Tanzania, LTS is offering technical support to the TAMD teams in each country. This involves training the teams on developing adaptation M&E frameworks using TAMD and their integration into planning documents, reviewing reports and assisting in fieldwork when necessary.

The first publication from this work, a briefing note on “Institutionalising adaptation monitoring and evaluation frameworks: Kenya”, can now be downloaded here.

Our TAMD work has been acknowledged in Uganda where we contributed to a working paper on identifying national standard climate change indicators with a bottom up approach. The working paper is available here

Our work has also been presented at COP 21 in Paris. A summary video (6 minutes) and more detailed video (19 minutes) can be played below:

Mount Elgon Regional Ecosystem Conservation Programme

The Mt Elgon Regional Ecosystem Conservation Programme (MERECP) was jointly funded by the Governments of Norway and Sweden. MERECP supported a trans-boundary ecosystem initiative under the auspices of the East African Community (EAC). MERECP started in 2006 with a total funding of NOK 34.2 million (approximately USD 6 million), initially for a period of 4 years.

LTS evaluated the overall achievements of the MERECP programme with an emphasis on the achievements in the redesign phase. The team assessed the regional relevance of the MERECP towards the agreed areas of co-operation in the Protocol for the Sustainable Development of the Lake Victoria Basin; evaluating the outcome, impact, sustainability and indicative cost-effectiveness (by relating the activities and costs compared to the outputs obtained) of the programme; and assessing the institutional arrangements for the management, implementation and the M&E functions of the programme. LTS reviewed the strengths and weaknesses and found lessons to be learned from the organisation and management of MERECP; compared the current institutional arrangement vis-a-vis the previous; and assessed the Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) and reporting systems of the MERECP, including whether targets, indicators and monitoring were necessary to judge performance.

The LTS evaluation provided factual (quantitative and qualitative) information on the efficiency (the relationship of input to output) and effectiveness (the relationship of output to outcome/impact) of the Programme; assessing partners’ planning processes; assessing the sustainability of the achievements of the program; and assessing partners’ risk management during planning and implementation. LTS assessed communication and co-ordination processes between implementing partners; assessed financial planning and reporting as well as follow-up, including anti-corruption mitigation measures; the relevance of the projects in relation to Kenyan and Ugandan policies and strategies, including ongoing processes of developing national REDD+ plans and strategies; and the level of funds that had reached the target groups/target institutions compared to the direct and indirect administrative costs of the LVBC. LTS also assessed how gender was dealt with in the programme, including how the LVBC gender policy was reflected in the implementation of the MERECP and the arrangement for joint financing (Norwegian Embassy in Kampala as the lead, Sida (Kampala, later Nairobi) as the silent partner).

LTS provided recommendations regarding the design of a possible second phase of MERECP based on the lessons learned during the first phase.

Update 18 January 2012: the MERECP End-Review Report has now been published and is available to view online here

Kagera River Basin: Feasibility Study for an Integrated Watershed Management Programme

The Kagera basin covers approximately 60,000 square km covering portions of the four countries of Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda with an estimated to have a population of nearly 15 million people. The Kagera basin experiences degradation of its water resources quantity and quality as a result of inter alia over-abstraction of surface water in some regions; unsustainable land use management practices; soil erosion; encroachment on river riparian lands and wetlands; increased sediment loads and siltation of water courses. The project objective was to establish a sustainable framework for the joint management through the Nile Equatorial Lakes Subsidiary Action Program (NELSAP) of water resources of the Kagera river basin and prepare for sustainable development oriented investments, in order to improve the living conditions of the people and to protect the environment. The Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) received financing through the World Bank Nile Basin Trust Fund and part of the proceeds are devoted to promote investment opportunities in the Kagera River Basin. The feasibility study for an Integrated Watershed Management Program for the Kagera Basin will contribute to addressing catchment degradation issues and optimal and sustainable integrated use of natural resources of the watersheds.

The Kagera Trans-boundary Integrated Water Resource Management and Development Project designed by LTS is a five year investment programme built upon 25 subprojects together with support packages covering programme management, coordination, capacity building and policy development. The total financial cost of the KIWMP over five years is US$ 614.72 million.

REDD+ Readiness Preparation Proposal

The World Bank Forest Carbon Partnership Facility is a leading multi-lateral effort to get countries “ready” to reduce emissions for deforestation and forest degradation and enhance carbon stocks (REDD+). The REDD Readiness Preparation Proposal for Uganda (R-PP) serves as a tool for guiding Uganda’s preparations to become ready for REDD+. The development of this proposal was coordinated by the REDD Working Group and supervised by the REDD Steering Committee. The R-PP presents the following priority actions for implementation during 2012-2014: defining institutional arrangements for implementing Uganda’s REDD+ Strategy, developing operational procedures and guidelines for REDD+ implementation, elaborating strategies for REDD, preparing a national reference emissions level and reference level, setting out an MRV system and implementing a framework that caters for social and environmental impacts. LTS assisted with a technical peer review of the draft R-PP and elaboration of its content prior to submission to the World Bank. The scope of LTS services included:

  • A review of the completeness, clarity and adequacy of the draft R-PP in meeting the compliance requirements set out by the World Bank
  • Recommending areas for improvement and specific means to fill gaps and where necessary prepare/edit text
  • Incorporation of the findings of the LTS-led Forest Sector Review in the R-PP
  • Responding to queries as necessary after the World Bank has considered the R-PP

Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Preparedness in Eastern Africa

The challenges imposed by a changing climate in Africa, in particular the requirements for adaptation are significant. Adequate funding and technological assistance to support adaptation are required, possibly under a legally binding framework. However, there are many outstanding questions concerning for example the key vulnerabilities and priorities for support, the scale of funding required, and the best ways of administering support and the optimum design of effective, accountable and transparent ‘adaptation governance’. In order to support demands for adaptation finance and goal-oriented administration of such funds, Heinrich Böll Foundation Nairobi commissioned LTS to undertake country case studies in Uganda and Tanzania. The overall aim was to evaluate the state of preparedness for climate change adaptation in these countries through a policy, legal, institutional and technical analysis.