Background Paper and Analysis of Country Data to Support Development of Comprehensive Landscape Methodological Approach

The BioCarbon Fund Initiative for Sustainable Forest Landscapes (ISFL) seeks to promote reduced greenhouse gas emissions from land-use. The Initiative will support reducing deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+), increasing sustainable agriculture, and smarter land-use planning, policies and practices. ISFL is currently operating in Colombia, Ethiopia, Indonesia, and Zambia. Contributors to the ISFL include Germany, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America.

ISFL designs programmes that focus on an integrated approach to the entire landscape with the ultimate goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and producing co-benefits such as improvements to livelihoods or agricultural productivity. For example, an ISFL programme could coordinate efforts in sustainable agricultural production projects, agro-forestry schemes, assisted natural regeneration, energy projects, water management, and REDD+ to align objectives and maximise impacts in the jurisdiction. Ultimately, jurisdictions that implement these measures are expected to generate emission reductions that can be purchased by ISFL through a results-based financing mechanism.

This project will produce a background document that will support future discussions on the development of a comprehensive landscape methodological approach. The document will: (i) describe and analyse the IPCC guidelines to ensure that ISFL Contributors have a common understanding of the guidelines and the decisions required to build the ISFL methodological approach and (ii) provide an analysis of available relevant data in ISFL countries. As part of this analysis, an understanding of the quality of data sets will also be ascertained.

LTS is leading the project, from a technical and management perspective, deploying a multi-disciplinary team of experts. The keys tasks include:

  • Provide a description of the key concepts in the IPCC guidelines to ensure that ISFL Contributors have a common understanding of the IPCC
  • Provide an analysis of available historic relevant data in ISFL programme countries
  • Identify key decisions and options going forward
  • Present and explain the results of the first three tasks to the ISFL Contributors

The main outputs include a concise background report, written for non-technical experts, and supported by evidence (in annexes).

Evaluation Management Unit for Forestry, Land-Use and Governance

FLAG is a GBP 32.5 million programme that aims to deliver effective and transparent land-use systems, government accountability at Provincial level, and transparency on land licencing decisions.
FLAG supports the improvement of sustainable and responsible business, particularly in palm oil, and promote alternative approaches to large scale deforestation.

The EMU will develop and implement an evaluation framework for evaluating the programme at the project and programme levels. The evaluation framework will ensure that the data is gathered and analysed for each project, and then synthesized for the evaluation of the overall programme. LTS is part of a consortium led by Triple Line.

LTS will assess the results achieved by FLAG and take care of a learning approach, which will support evidence-based decision making regarding the scale-up or redesign of the interventions.

Sustainable Forest and Biodiversity Management in the Heart of Borneo

The Heart of Borneo region (HOB) covering about primary 22 million hectares comprises one-third of the island of Borneo, has been identified as the focus of an international conservation agreement with the Governments of Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei Darussalam. The HOB region holds an estimated 6 percent of global biodiversity, primarily in its tropical rainforests, and provides ecosystem services for 12 million local and indigenous people. Despite its importance, current deforestation rates average 3.2 percent per annum and one third of the islands forest have been lost in the last few decades.

The effectiveness and long-term conservation of HOB region requires the full support of communities and local authorities, as well as self-financing resources. The Government of Indonesia wishes to pilot an incentive based payment for ecosystem services (PES) financing scheme for forestry and biodiversity management. Other incentives include the integration, sequestration and financing by Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+), renewable energy from micro hydro power plant, local water supply and ecotourism development.

LTS’ role as the Project Management Consultant (PMC) is designed to assist the GoI deliver the HOB initiative through three inter-related outputs:

  • Output 1. Strengthen capacity and institutions for sustainable forest and biodiversity management
  • Output 2. Exercise the REDD+ implementation at local level
  • Output 3. Establish pilot area for PES and sustainable financing schemes for forest and biodiversity management

LTS works closely with the GoI Project National Coordinator and Project Field Coordinator to deliver, commission and supervise: (i) capacity building related to sustainable forest and biodiversity management in Nunukan, Malinau, Kapuas Hulu and Melawi districts; and (ii) development of one or more pilot model(s) for REDD+ and PES within the community forest in the Forest Management Unit (FMU) of the District of Kapuas Hulu and District of Malinau.

Review of the Global Green Growth Institute Country Programme in Indonesia

The Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) is an interdisciplinary, multi-stakeholder international organisation, driven by the needs of emerging and developing countries. The GGGI is dedicated to pioneering a new model of economic growth, known as “green growth”, which simultaneously targets economic performance, environmental sustainability and social inclusion.

Indonesia launched its GGGI country programme in September 2012 with the Norwegian Agency for International Development backing and financing. The programme became operative in 2013 and is known as “the GoI- GGGI Green Growth Program”. Its goal is to mainstream green growth in Indonesia’s economic planning process, both at national and provincial levels, and to integrate the REDD+ program into a much wider green growth approach that should sit at the core of the economic planning process in the country. The programme expected outcomes are an improved understanding of green growth opportunities in the context of existing economic planning process, an accelerated REDD+ pilot delivery mechanism, strengthened capacity at provincial level to implement key pilots in the short term, and enhanced capacity in the government to put together a green growth program at scale in the medium and long run.

LTS carried out the review of the Review of the Global Green Growth Institute Country Programme in Indonesia. The purpose of the review is firstly to determine whether the programme is on track to reach its expected results by the end of the programme period. Secondly, the review will recommend necessary adjustments to the programme based upon the findings and taking into consideration the revised outcome objectives and will include recommendations on how the programme can increase its strategic impact in relevant sectors, especially forests.

The evaluation has been carried out through a:

  • Rapid Assessment of the country programme through a combination of desk based research, field visits and key informant interviews;
  • Review of the financial management of the programme;
  • Cost effectiveness analysis of the conversion of project inputs into outputs.

Implementation of the Multi-Stakeholder Forestry Programme – Phase 3

The Multi-Stakeholder Forestry Programme (MFP) aims to improve management of forests throughout Indonesia in order to reduce rural poverty, enhance biodiversity conservation, strengthen climate protection by significantly reducing emissions from land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) practices.

A brochure on MFP is available here.

The programme facilitates partnerships between central and local government, civil society and the private sector in supporting relevant policy analysis and development, assisting Indonesia to implement its FLEGT Voluntary Partnership Agreement.

The main outcome of the 8.6 million pounds MSFP3 is a legal and technically effective community-based forest industry has been established to:

  • complement corporate industrial forest production,
  • reducing illegal logging (unplanned forest degradation) and unplanned deforestation
  • providing greater tenure security
  • improving rural livelihoods
  • protecting forest ecosystems and the environment
  • mitigating climate change

The programme outputs include:

  • Output 1: Industry-wide adoption of the SVLK timber legality assurance system in support of sustained exports to legality-regulated markets
  • Output 2: Support for local government and community rights-holders, accelerating the effective implementation of community-centred forest management, as prioritised in MoFor policy and legislation and the National Strategies for REDD+ and Food Production
  • Output 3: Implemented mechanisms for assuring access to forest and land resources by community groups and clarity of their tenure, allowing them to contribute to meeting industry demands national market and export targets for timber and non-timber forest products

LTS is the lead framework supplier to the DFID-funded Forest Governance Markets and Climate Programme, which provides the funding for MFP3 implementation. LTS is the lead contract holder for MFP3 support and collaborates with the Oxford Policy Management who delivers the project through its Jakarta office. Other key consortium partners include Efeca, IIED, SNV, HuMa and ICEL.

Services include:

  • Provision of a core management structure to coordinate programme activities, including direction, administration, financial control, and thematic and geographical technical facilitation
  • Management of sub-contracts related to training, external monitoring, consultancies, reviews and other specialist services required for delivery of the outputs
  • Development of dossiers for calls for proposals for grants to project partners; implementation of systems for evaluation of proposals; award of grants; and supervision of grant implementation
  • Coordination of systems needed for programme oversight, including facilitating and organising Steering Committee meetings and preparation and submission of annual and other reports
  • Secretariat support to the Ministry of Forestry and EU Delegation in Jakarta with regard to the efficient organisation and operation of the Joint Implementation Committee and related monitoring.

Image credit: Trekking Rinjani

Real-time Evaluation of Norway’s International Climate and Forest Initiative: Measurement, Reporting and Verification

Through its REDD+ MRV and reference levels work track, NICFI supports MRV and reference level establishment activities through bilateral support to six countries (Tanzania, Guyana, Indonesia, Mexico, Vietnam, and Ethiopia), multilateral support through the United Nations Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (UN-REDD), Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) funding allocated to national MRV and reference level establishment, support to the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Forest Carbon Tracking (FCT) initiative and to the Global Forest Observation Initiative (GFOI); and, “consensus building” activities focused on MRV and reference levels in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiations.

The purpose of this evaluation was (i) to assess NICFI’s support to Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) and the extent to which this support has contributed to NICFI’s general objectives and (ii) to provide feedback to NICFI and other stakeholders involved in efforts to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, conserve and enhance forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+). To achieve this purpose, the evaluation had the following three objectives, as stated in the Terms of Reference:

  • Assess to what extent the support has contributed to national capacity building, institutional strengthening and MRV and forest inventory systems;
  • Assess to what extent the support has been coordinated with the efforts of other actors;
  • Assess the effectiveness and efficiency of different channels of support, where possible comparing these.

The evaluation was divided into three phases to aid implementation. Phase 1 was an intensive design phase to optimise strategic focus and develop the most appropriate and efficient sampling and assessment methodologies. Phase 2 focused on primary and secondary data collection and preliminary analysis through four steps aimed at ensuring efficiency, consistency and triangulation of information to generate strong evidence. In addition to desk review, extensive interviews were conducted in Cameroon, DRC, Guyana, Indonesia (Jakarta and Central Kalimantan) and Tanzania. Phone interviews of international stakeholders and climate change negotiators were also undertaken. Phase 3 involved the analysis and synthesis of the information collected, and reporting.

The evaluation Terms of Reference posed a set of questions to be answered by the evaluation and required an assessment of the scheme against the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development / Development Assistance Committee (OECD/DAC) criteria of Relevance, Effectiveness and Efficiency.

A brochure on the MRV evaluation can be downloaded here.

Program for Eastern Indonesia SME Assistance (PENSA 2) End of Facility Review

The PENSA 2 end-of-term review included activities undertaken by IFC-PENSA from July 2008 to December 2012. The review took place on two levels: i) a performance evaluation of the IFC-PENSA II program as a vehicle for delivering advisory services; and ii) programme evaluations centred on strategic themes of interest.

The review ensured accountability of IFC-PENSA towards donors and stakeholder and provided lessons learnt that will generate actionable recommendations. For the performance evaluation of IFC-PENSA 2, LTS and OPM made use of access to PENSA documentation, individual project Implementation Plans, Supervision Reports and Completion Reports, IEG evaluation notes and the yearly Client Surveys. The end-of-term review of IFC-PENSA 2 also draws on the mid-term and end-term reviews of IFC-PENSA 1, other evaluations, surveys and materials of active and closed projects, and relevant data sources.

The main method of investigation was a desk review supplemented by meetings with selected former and current IFC and World Bank staff, donors, project counterparts and other stakeholders. More in-depth analysis obtained from the program evaluations was also included in the review.

LTS has provided the Team Leader for this assignment who oversaw the assessment of the performance of PENSA 2 and the assessment of the performance of selected projects based their relevance; effectiveness; efficiency; impact; sustainability; additionality; and their consideration of cross-cutting issues. In addition to overseeing all technical aspects of assignment; the LTS Team Leader supervised field work; lead the sustainable forestry component evaluation; gave presentations to the client; and contributed to all deliverables.

Lessons Learned from Support to Civil Society Organisations

Through its Civil Society Support Scheme, Norway’s International Climate and Forest Initiative has provided grants to over 40 civil society and research institutions to implement projects related to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) in developing countries. Projects range from primary research into technical aspects of REDD+, to policy advocacy and work on safeguards, to capacity building and REDD+ demonstrations.
The principle purpose of the evaluation was to determine whether the NICFI investment of over 650 million Norwegian kroner in support to civil society was on target to help the Initiative reach its overall climate and development goals.
The assignment involved the development of a Theory-Based Evaluation approach, Evaluation Framework, Survey Instruments and field work Indonesia, DRC, Cameroon, Peru and the USA.

The evaluation team found that projects were contributing to the development of an enabling environment for REDD+, were contributing to the development of national REDD+ strategies with a strong focus on social safeguards and the rights of Indigenous Peoples. In addition, projects were generating useful new knowledge and supporting local partners to become strong REDD+ actors in their own right.
The team recommended ways in which reporting systems and knowledge management processes might be improved. The NICFI management team rapidly adopted the principle recommendations of the evaluation and have initiated discussions on how best to address these issues with a view to improving internal systems and better capturing new knowledge generated by the projects.
Contact Philippa Lincoln for further details.
Download the report here.

Contributions to the Formulation and Implementation of National REDD Strategies: 2007-2010

The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the Norwegian International Climate and Forest Initiative (NICFI)’s support to the formulation and implementation of national REDD+ strategies and other REDD+ readiness efforts. As NICFI considers it likely that the international REDD+ architecture will build on national policies and measures, this national level evaluation will constitute a main pillar of the whole real-time evaluation programme.

The evaluation encompassed five case-study countries: Brazil, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guyana, Indonesia, and Tanzania. These countries receive significant support from NICFI through different channels and mechanisms, they represent a range of forest types and conditions, are at different stages in the forest transition, represent different national policy contexts, and together they cover each of the three tropical continents. Consequently, NICFI support in each of these countries has been used for different purposes, including stakeholder consultations, capacity-building, institutional strengthening, demonstration activities, and application of policies and measures.

Within each of the five countries this evaluation had two main objectives:

1. Develop a methodology for the real-time evaluation of NICFI support to the formulation and implementation of national REDD+ strategies; and

2. Establish a baseline for 2007 and evaluate the status and progress of NICFI support to the formulation and implementation of national REDD+ strategies as of 2010.

The evaluation team documented a number of key successes of the NICFI contribution in the countries assessed, and provided recommendations that could strengthen this contribution. These recommendations have been followed up by NICFI.

Contact Philippa Lincoln for further details.

Download the Brazil Report here.

Download the Democratic Republic of Congo Report here.

Download the Guyana Report here.

Download the Indonesia Report here.

Download the Tanzania Report here.

Download the Executive Summaries from the country reports here.


Voluntary Partnership Agreement – Legality Assurance Systems and European Union Green Public Procurement

The 2003 EU FLEGT Action Plan aimed at tackling illegal logging and the trade in associated products, recognising the EU as a consumer of timber from regions where levels of illegality and poor governance in the forest sector are serious. A cornerstone of this Plan is the negotiation and implementation of Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPA): bilateral agreements between the EU and timber product exporting partner countries to trade only in legal wood. The VPA contains a Legality Assurance System (LAS), a mechanism that allows a FLEGT partner country to verify that timber produced has complied with all prescribed regulations. A LAS is based on the national legislation stipulating the economic, environmental and social regulatory framework for forest management, processing of timber and trade in timber products.

The objective of this assignment was to assess the extent to which the first FLEGT VPA and Legality Assurance System (LAS) designs (in Ghana, Cameroon, R.O. Congo and Indonesia) would, when implemented, meet the requirements of existing and planned EU Member State procurement policies for relevant product groups, and further outline the relationship of LAS and procurement policies in general.

Studying these first cases provided further understanding on the overall fit between the VPA and its associated LAS and the policies in the EU guiding the procurement of timber.