Formulation of the Future Cooperation in the Kenyan Forestry Sector

The purpose of the assignment is to design the future Finnish-Kenyan cooperation in the field of forest sector development. This is a continuation of the long collaboration of more than 25 years that the Government of the Kenya and the Government of Finland have had in forest sector development. The most recent collaboration was the 2007-2016 bilateral program “Miti Mingi Maisha Bora – Support to Forest Sector Reform (MMMB)” which is aiming for a “a reduction in poverty through ensuring that the forest sector contributes effectively and sustainably to improving the lives of the poor, restoring the environment, and aiding the economic recovery and growth of Kenya, within the context of Vision 2030.”

The assignment consists of two phases; identification and formulation. During the Identification Phase (May – July), LTS is involved in analysis of different needs and opportunities in the forestry sector. 2 – 3 Concept Notes will be prepared describing different proposals for future cooperation in the Kenyan forestry sector. The concept notes will present clearly different, realistic project alternatives in terms of project approach, strategy and modality. The notes will provide the competent authorities within the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland (MFA) and the Government of Kenya an analytical base for decisions on the future cooperation’s strategic scope and approach.

Authorities will analyse the Concept Notes and choose one for development into the programme for cooperation in Kenyan forestry sector. The process to achieve this will involve country missions where interviews with forest actors in Kenya, group discussion and stakeholders’ workshops will be organised. During the Formulation Phase (August – September), LTS will be involved in developing the chosen Concept Note into a draft programme document, which will be submitted to MFA.

The final output of the study was the production of the “Review of Governance of the Forest Sector in Kenya Report”.

Photo credit: Michael Gachanja

Review of Governance of the Forest Sector in Kenya

LTS conducted a study between February and May 2016 for Kenya Forest Service to provide a clear picture on how governance aspects of the forest sector agenda have taken shape since a similar study was carried out in 2011. Kenya’s forest sector has been going through reforms since 2007 when the Forests Act (2005) was enacted. The Government of Finland and the Government of Kenya (GoK) have supported the reform process through the “Miti Mingi Maisha Bora (MMMB) – Support to Forest Sector Reform in Kenya” Programme, 2009-2016.

In 2011, MMMB supported a study on governance in the forest sector. The study was organised along five major building blocks of good forest governance as defined by the World Bank’s 2009 “Roots for Good Forest Outcomes: An Analytical Framework for Governance Reforms”. The building blocks include: (i) transparency, accountability, and public participation; (ii) stability of forest institutions and conflict management; (iii) quality of forest administration; (iv) coherence of forest legislation and rule of law; and (v) economic efficiency, equity and incentives. The 2011 governance study was presented in the form of a “Strategy Note for Forest Governance Reform in Kenya”.

Based on the findings of the 2011 review, a “traffic” trend analysis was undertaken to determine the directional trend in forest sector governance. The aim of this analysis was to identify key areas where changes, positive or negative, have taken place. Outcomes associated with the changes were also analysed and, based on the assessment, actions were identified and proposed to move the forest sector reform process forward .

Photo credit: Michael Gachanja.

Enhancing Direct Access to Adaptation Funding in Kenya

LTSA is providing technical support to the Government of Kenya (GoK) to develop an investment-grade adaptation pipeline, project concept notes and proposals for submission to the Green Climate Fund (GCF).

Kenya submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in July 2015. Kenya’s INDC places a significant priority on adapting to the effects of climate change. It presents 18 macro-level adaptation actions aligned with the country’s Medium Term Plan (MTP) and also elaborated in the National Action Plan (NAP).

The Green Climate Fund is intended to be the centrepiece of Long Term Financing under the UNFCCC. It has set a goal to raise $100 billion per year by 2020 which provides an opportunity for climate change stakeholders in Kenya to mobilise resources for the implementation of the country’s INDC and NAP. LTSA recommends that the process of enhancing direct access to adaptation funding in Kenya be built on the INDC and NAP processes and that adaptation actions within these documents be prioritised for GCF funding.

In line with this LTSA will support the GoK to develop an investment-grade adaptation pipeline, develop 2-3 project concept notes and 1-2 full proposals. We will build the capacities and enhance the skills of the relevant GoK officials to write funding proposals, monitor and evaluate GCF projects. LTSA will also develop an M&E framework and tools for monitoring, evaluating and reporting programme and project outcomes as well as support lesson learning and knowledge sharing related to climate finance.

Due Diligence on a REDD+ Project in Kenya for IFCs Finance for Forestry (F4F) Bond

LTS provided technical support to International Finance Corporation (IFC) Climate and Carbon Finance Unit (GCCCU) in undertaking an evaluation of an existing Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) and Climate, Community Biodiversity (CCB) Standard verified REDD+ project in Kenya. The evaluation determined the likely future viability of the project based on a systematic review of its components, including the management system, business, legal, and financial assumptions.

The evaluation included the basis of the project’s financial forecasting; the regulatory environment; existing project conditions; adherence to the Project Design Document (PDD); application of social and environmental management systems; and stakeholder engagement and benefit sharing mechanisms. It also included an assessment (as appropriate) of the effectiveness and impact of sub-projects on both project owners and stakeholders. Additionally, an evaluation of the project’s compliance against IFC Performance Standards (PS) was undertaken, with resulting actions developed to guide the closure of identified gaps.

LTS prioritised two main activities in the evaluation; a desk review and site visits. We undertook an extensive desk review to gain an understanding of the project and determine its compliance with VCS and CCB standards. We also used the desk review to develop a due diligence matrix and checklists of components that have been verified in the field such as application of project administrative, management and governance systems. We then conducted site visits to verify the checklists and evaluate the implementation of the management systems for the REDD+ project through interviews with responsible personnel, reviews of staff trainings, documentation at site level, audit schedules and systems checks.

Development of the National Adaptation Plan

LTS provided technical support to develop Kenya’s National Adaptation Plan (NAP) which highlights Kenya’s adaptation priorities in a format that is easily accessible for reference by county governments, sectoral ministries, private sector and civil society actors and development partners.

Through a participatory process, LTS assisted the Government to formulate the NAP and generate metrics of priority actions, their costs and indicative milestones.

LTS also aligned the NAP with relevant policies, strategies and initiatives at the national and county levels including the National Climate Change Framework, Climate Change Bill 2014, Ending Drought Emergencies Strategy and County Integrated Development Plans.

More information on the project is available in the following publication:
Joto Africa November 2015

Kenya’s National Adaptation Plan 2015-2030 (NAP), finalised by LTS Africa in December 2015, aims “to consolidate the country’s vision on adaptation supported by macro-level adaptation actions that relate with the economic sectors and county level vulnerabilities in order to enhance long term resilience and adaptive capacity.” This is Kenya’s first plan on adaptation, and will help the government move toward Vision 2030 goals by mainstreaming climate change adaptation into planning and action. The NAP will assist national and county governments to implement the National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP) by providing guidance on priority actions. The NAP articulates a mainstreaming approach under which adaptation and development goals are complementary.

It is expected that NAP will be used by:

  • National and county government to inform planning and budgeting;
  • Non-state actors, including the private sector, to inform risk planning and business decisions; and
  • Development partners to align funding with Kenya’s adaptation priorities.
  • Civil society to assist in the implementation of prioritised adaptation actions

The NAP describes the national circumstances in Kenya, including current and project climate scenarios that impact decision making. A climate hazard and vulnerability assessment provides information on droughts, flooding and sea level rise. The NAP explores governance structures, including the policy and regulatory framework, institutional arrangements, and a monitoring and reporting framework.

A briefing note on the NAP was presented by the National Climate Change Secretariat during the 21st meeting of Conference of Parties (COP) in Paris in December 2015.

Evaluation of the Land Rights and Natural Resources Programme

Mainyoito Pastoralist Integrated Development Organization (MPIDO) has been implementing since 2002 the Land Rights and Natural Resource Management Program (LRNRM) in 4 counties (Kajiado, Narok, Nakuru and Baringo) in Kenya since 2000.

The LRNRM program has four major components;

  • Awareness raising and capacity building
  • Public litigation
  • Lobbying and advocacy
  • Networking and collaboration

After successful implementation of the third phase of the LRNRM program, LTS was contracted for the evaluation exercise that took place in November 2015.

Formulation of Kenya’s Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC)

Ricardo AEA and LTS International supported the Government of Kenya in developing the country’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) for tackling climate change.

The project, funded by the Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN), involved Ricardo-AEA and LTS International who worked closely with the Government of Kenya to develop the INDC guided by the Constitution of Kenya and national development goals, objectives and priorities as summarised in Vision 2030 and its medium term plans (MTPs). Kenya has been at the forefront of developing a national climate change policy framework through its National Climate Change Response Strategy (NCCRS) and the subsequent National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP).

LTS International provided technical expertise on how to incorporate adaptation into the INDC using guidelines from various credible sources including the UNFCCC. The LTS project team provided Kenya’s adaptation contribution into the INDC.

Update, July 2015: You can find the Kenyan INDC here.

Mid-term Review and Planning for the Norwegian-funded Conservation Farming Unit Programme

Norad has provided NOK 302m to support the promotion of conservation agriculture through the Conservation Agriculture Programme (CAP II) in Zambia and Conservation Agriculture Regional Programme (CARP) in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda. These two programmes are managed by the Conservation Farming Unit (CFU) of the Zambian National Farmers Union under a contract with the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

LTS International will design and deliver the mid-term review and provide recommendations to support decision-making with respect to further Norwegian support to the programmes and to conservation agriculture in general. LTS has provided an overall team leader and national consultants in Zambia, Malawi, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.

Evaluation of Denmark’s Climate Change Funding for Developing Countries

Danish International climate change funding supports Denmark’s contribution to Fast Start Finance initially after the non-binding agreement at the UNFCCC COP15. Denmark also provides additional financing for mitigation and adaptation to climate change in developing countries. From 2008 to 2012 the Danish commitment has been about 1.5 billion DKK and a similar amount is expected to be committed from 2013 to 2015.

The team will conduct an independent evaluation of the Danish climate change funding to developing countries. The evaluation shall provide evidence of the outcomes of the climate change funding for forthcoming international policy dialogue on climate change and provide evidence for design and implementation of any future Danish support to climate change finance in developing countries, including addressing climate change in future Danida supported country programmes.

LTS is providing the following services:

  • Development of a Theory Based Evaluation Design
  • Development of the portfolio level theory of change and some intervention level theories of change
  • Development of Evaluation Framework, including Key Evaluation Questions and Indicators, in line with the OECD/DAC criteria
  • Development of Survey Instruments (Project Documentation Review Guide and Review Template; Semi-structured Interview Guide)
  • Leading field work in Kenya, Denmark and Vietnam
  • Responsibility for Analysis and synthesis across all the contributing studies (up to 6 contributing studies) and development of the final synthesis report
  • Presentation of the report conclusions and recommendations in Copenhagen
  • Coordination and management of a complex evaluation, including international team all working in separate locations

Image credit:

Nile Story

The objectives of the Nile Story are:

  • To develop new ways to describe the results of the Nile programme in qualitative and quantitative terms at the programme and project levels, including the outcomes and impacts of the support.
  • To convey these results in a variety of communications products targeted at different audiences.

The consultancy researches and conveys the results of the Nile programme enabled by the NBTF, coordinates country and partner support, and packages the findings into a suite of communications materials, informally called the ‘Nile Story’. The work covers the years 1999 through June 2014.

The Nile Story captures systematically the breadth and depth of progress made by the Nile Basin countries on the development track in pursuit of their Shared Vision in both qualitative and quantitative terms.

Building transboundary cooperation is a long term process and Nile cooperation is still in early stages. The Nile story should make reference to some of the challenges experienced and those that that lie ahead. The Nile Story aims to be ‘people centered’, with a focus on what has changed among stakeholders, including changes in attitudes, behaviors, and actions on the ground.

LTS developed a suite of communications products to tell the story of the Nile Basin Initiative over its 15 year history. The products reviewed work already undertaken to capture the progress of the Nile countries, conducted new research and analysis of NBI and national level progress resulting from the Nile programme, and established a framework through which the results of the Nile programme can be conveyed.

The Nile Story publications are available here.