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Our Services


Never before has the interface between environment and society been such a key determinant for economic development. LTS has built a team of multi-ecosystem specialists who are able to provide technical expertise at the ecosystem and landscape level. They take integrated approaches that deliver development benefits to the poor.

It is our belief at LTS that markets for ecosystem services can improve livelihoods and well-being, promote local sustainable forest management and strengthen community-based institutions, as well as enhance ecosystem health and secure new sources of funding for biodiversity conservation. In essence, they aim to fulfil a dual mandate of environmental sustainability and socio-economic development.


Our practical work on ecosystems is best demonstrated by our ability to deliver a range of services:

  • Land-use planning we can deliver integrated and participatory land-use assessments of a variety of land use options through the application of spatial and remote sensing methodologies and groundtruthing in order to prepare comprehensive land use decision tools.

  • Resource assessment we can forecast the merchantable volumes of timber and non-timber products that can be harvested from a land area.

  • Economic and financial analysis we can conduct a cost benefit analysis of interventions, incorporating ecosystem values, considering broader livelihood and distributional concerns, tracing both upstream and downstream impacts of the proposed interventions in terms of their influence on the provision of ecosystem services.

  • Biological studies and assessments we conduct analyses and biodiversity surveys and baselines as well as measure economic, ecological and social impacts from improved ecosystem, habitat and species conservation.

  • Watershed services we provide services related to planning and monitoring of water resources, assisting watershed landholders and downstream beneficiaries with resource management in return for payments, advising water-polluting companies on how to offset such pollution by investing in watershed protection elsewhere.

  • Carbon sequestration we develop and support voluntary and Kyoto compliant site-specific low carbon forestry and land-use projects, establishing baselines from our detailed understanding of the scientific and technological basis of carbon uptake, storage and recycling within rural ecosystems.

  • Social and poverty analysis we develop socio-economic profiles, establish poverty status and safety nets, identify livelihood strategies (assets, capabilities and activities), and conduct beneficiary assessments and gender mainstreaming.

  • Enterprise development we can assist in defining income generation activities, conducting market analysis, supporting value chain development, brokering relations with service providers, and demand driven extension services.

  • Park management we have helped some of our clients prepare management, operational and business plans, install park infrastructure, support eco-tourism facilities, develop robust funding mechanisms and appropriate compensation arrangements.

  • Strategic environmental assessment we can conduct systematic processes for evaluating the environmental quality and consequences, of visions and development intentions incorporated in policy, planning or programme initiatives, to ensure full integration of relevant biophysical, economic, social and political considerations

Mid-term Review of Malawi Livelihood programs
2016 - 2016

GROW: Community Oil Palm Outgrower Scheme Operational Model and Financial Plan Development
2016 - 2016

Formulation of the Future Cooperation in the Kenyan Forestry Sector
2016 - 2017

Establishment and Management of a Technical Assistance Facility under the Programme of Support to Agriculture
2016 - 2020

Study of Value Chain Development under the Sustainable Land Management Programme (SLMP) II in Ethiopia
2016 - 2017

Review of Governance of the Forest Sector in Kenya
2016 - 2016

Sustainable Forest and Biodiversity Management in the Heart of Borneo
2015 - 2017

Evaluation of the Land Rights and Natural Resources Programme
2015 - 2015

Scoping Study for Biomass Partnership Fund
2015 - 2015

Evaluation of the Conservation and Sustainable Development Program
2015 - 2016

Strengthening the Information Base of Natural Habitats, Biodiversity and Environmental Services in the Shire Basin
2015 - 2018

Mid-term Review and Planning for the Norwegian-funded Conservation Farming Unit Programme
2014 - 2014

Support to the Illegal Wildlife Trade Challenge Fund
2014 - 2019

Sustainable and Thriving Environments for West African Regional Development
2014 - 2014

Planning for Resilience in East Africa through Policy, Adaptation, Research, and Economic Development
2013 - 2018

Environmental and Natural Resources Management Interventions in the Middle Shire River Basin
2013 - 2014

Communications Materials for Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation
2013 - 2014

Final evaluation of Non Timber Forest Products-Participatory Forest Management project in SW Ethiopia
2013 - 2013

iCoast: Understanding the Fiscal and Regulatory Mechanisms Necessary to Achieve Climate Compatible Development in the Coastal Zone
2012 - 2014

Conservation of Maasai Mau and Transmara Forest Blocks of Mau Forest Complex and Preparation of Project Investment Proposal
2012 - 2012

Mount Elgon Regional Ecosystem Conservation Programme
2011 - 2011

Kagera River Basin: Feasibility Study for an Integrated Watershed Management Programme
2011 - 2012

Integrated Assessment of Land Use Options
2011 - 2013

Monitoring and Evaluation within Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation
2011 - 2013

Natural Resources Management Programme
2011 - 2014

Environment and Natural Resources Management Action Plan in the Upper Shire River Basin
2010 - 2011

Evaluation of Closed Projects in the Falkland Islands
2010 - 2010

Evaluation of Closed Darwin Initiative Projects in Madagascar
2009 - 2009

Classification and Status of Kenya's Forest Ecosystems
2009 - 2009

Conservation and Rehabilitation of the Mau Forest Complex
2009 - 2009

Mid Term review of the project Eastern Selous Community Wildlife and Natural Resources Management Project
2009 - 2009

Preparation of Community Development Component of Harapan Rainforest Initiative
2009 - 2010

Evaluation of Closed Darwin Initiative Projects in Morocco and Egypt
2009 - 2009

Asia, Mid Term Review of Developing Land Snail Expertise in South and Southeast Asia, DEFRA
2008 - 2008

Evaluation of Closed Darwin Initiative Projects in Brazil
2007 - 2008

Mid Term Review of Buffer Zone Restoration and Development in Knuckles Forest Reserve
2007 - 2008

Mid Term Review of ADEPT - Agricultural Development & Environmental Protection in Transylvania
2007 - 2007

Darwin Initiative Evaluation of Closed Projects in India and Nepal
2007 - 2007

Evaluation of Closed Darwin Initiative Projects in Mongolia
2007 - 2007

Review of Microfinance Initiatives in Protected Area and Environmental Contexts in East Africa
2007 - 2007

Best Practice Guidelines - Sacred Natural Sites: Guidelines for Protected Area Managers
2007 - 2007

A Study for the Establishment of a Multiple Use Marine Park
2007 - 2008

Evaluation of Closed Darwin Initiative Project in the Galapagos Islands
2007 - 2007

Mid Term Review of the South Africa Africulture Project
2007 - 2007

Mid Term Review of a Market Led Conservation Response to the Domestic Bird Trade in Indonesia
2007 - 2007

Network of Locally Managed Marine Protected Areas in Solomon Islands and Fiji - Mid Term Review
2007 - 2007

Evaluation of Closed Darwin Initiative Projects in Sabah
2007 - 2007

Evaluation of Closed Darwin Initiative Projects in Costa Rica and Panama
2007 - 2007

Evaluation of Closed Darwin Initiative Projects in Seychelles, Mauritius and Rodrigues
2007 - 2007

Mauritius, Mid Term Review of Developing Reserves for Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Fisheries in Rodrigues, DEFRA
2007 - 2007

Evaluation of Closed Darwin Initiative Projects in Indonesia
2006 - 2007

Technical Support to Community Conservation, Project Design, Monitoring and Evaluation
2006 - 2007

Access Project - Environmental Assessment and Management Support Consultancy
2006 - 2007

Serengeti-North Luangwa Ecosystem Project
2006 - 2007

Mahale Ecosystem Management Project - Monitoring and Evaluation Plan
2006 - 2006

Protected Areas Development Programme: Phase II
2006 - 2010

Evaluation of Closed Darwin Initiative Projects Located in Vietnam
2006 - 2006

Evaluation of Closed Darwin Initiative Projects Located in Tanzania
2006 - 2006

Evaluation of Closed Projects in Peru
2006 - 2006

Evaluation of Closed Darwin Initiative Projects Located in South Africa
2006 - 2006

Mid Term Review of Conservation Management Training and Capacity Building in Sub-Saharan Africa
2006 - 2006

Rural Development Programme II, Identification and Appraisal Missions
2005 - 2005

Review of Environmental Impact for Short Rotation Forestry
2005 - 2005

Evaluation of Biodiversity Conservation Training - Pacific Island States
2005 - 2005

Biodiversity and Functional Value of Amazonian Primary, Secondary and Plantation Forests - Mid Term Review
2005 - 2005

South America, Mid Term Review of Indigenous Methods to Sustainably Manage Riverine Plantations, Amazon Region, DEFRA
2004 - 2004

Medicinal Plants Project Phase II
2004 - 2007

Environmental Impact Assessment of the Bumbuna Hydro Electric Dam
2004 - 2004

Mid Term Review of an Integrated Conservation Programme for Threatened Endemic Forest Species in Chile
2004 - 2004

Fiji, Identifying sites of global biodiversity conservation importance for the Fiji BSAP - Mid Term Review, DEFRA
2004 - 2005

Tanzania, Mid Term Review of A National Plan for Carnivore Conservation in Tanzania, DEFRA
2004 - 2004

Establishment of the Nuratau-Kyzylkum Biosphere Reserve as a Model for Biodiversity Conservation
2003 - 2005

Project Formulation for an Integrated Natural Resource Development and Poverty Reduction Project
2003 - 2004

Jozani-Chwaka Bay Conservation Project, Phase III, Final Project Review
2003 - 2003

Mid Term Review of CEESP I and the Community Foresty Project
2003 - 2003

Darwin Initiative Monitoring and Evaluation / Management of Applications Process
2003 - 2019

Mid Term Review of Conservation of the Paguyaman Forest in North Sulawesi
2002 - 2002

Mid Term Review of Important Biodiversity Areas in Kenya: Improving Monitoring, Management and Conservation Areas
2002 - 2005

Review of the Royal Bardia National Park Buffer Zone Development Project - Phase II
2002 - 2002

Establishment of the Cameroon Mountains Conservation Foundation
2002 - 2003

Awash Conservation and Development Project
2002 - 2003

Citarik Watershed Management Project
2001 - 2003

Uttar Pradesh Forestry Project
2001 - 2002

Natural Resource Management & Poverty Reduction Project
2001 - 2001

Arabuko Sokoke Project
2000 - 2001

Mount Cameroon Project (Phase 2 & Exit)
1999 - 2002

Review of the Regional Assistance Programme for Fisheries Development in the Central American Isthmus
1999 - 2000

Feasiblity Study for the Development of a Regional Environmental Strategy
1999 - 2000

Kenya, Arabuko-Sokoke Forest Management and Conservation Project
1998 - 1998

Lesotho, Drakensberg/Maloti Mountain Conservation Programme
1998 - 1998

Wildlife Conservation in Northern Region
1996 - 1996

Cameroon, Participatory Biodiversity Conservation Strategy - Mount Cameroon Project
1996 - 1997

Resource Assessment and Collaborative Forest Management of Tanga's Coastal Forests
1996 - 1998

Inventory of Gmelina arborea
1991 - 1991

Service areas:
climate change